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MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS
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SECTION 14
MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS Print this page Click to print the page

Volume I, Section 8

8 ARCHITECTURE

{A} For a description of the notations, see Acceleration Regimes.

This section contains the following topics:Skip Section listing 

8.1    Introduction
8.2    Overall Architectural Considerations and Requirements
8.3    Crew Station Adjacencies
8.4    Compartment and Crew Station Orientation
8.5    Location Coding
8.6    Envelope Geometry for Crew Functions
8.7    Traffic Flow
8.8    Translation Paths
8.9    Mobility Aids and Restraints Architectural Integration
8.10  Hatches and Doors
8.11  Windows Integration
8.12  Interior Design and Decor
8.13  Lighting

See the video clips associated with this section.

8.1 INTRODUCTION

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This section discusses the placement, arrangement, and grouping of compartments and crew stations in space modules. The section also includes design parameters for items which integrate the crew stations:

a. Traffic flow and translation paths.

b. Hatches and doors.

c. Location and orientation cues.

d. Mobility aids and restraints.

(Refer to Section 10.0 Activity Centers and Section 9.0 Workstations for detailed design and equipment requirements for each crew station.)

8.2 OVERALL ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS

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8.2.1 Introduction

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This section defines considerations and requirements that apply to the overall layout and arrangement of the space module.

8.2.2 Overall Architectural Design Considerations

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8.2.2.1 Microgravity Design - Considerations

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Many space modules will have a microgravity environment. The following are general considerations that must be made when designing the overall layout of the space module for microgravity:

a. Access - Microgravity allows greater access to places that would otherwise not be possible in 1-G.

b. Restraints - Many of the activities in microgravity require that the individual be restrained or tethered. Layout of crew stations must consider the extra time for the crewmember to secure him or herself. Activities which require restraints should be grouped as much as possible within the same reach envelope.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.9, Mobility Aids and Restraints Integration, for additional information on restraints and to Paragraph 3.3.3.3.1, Functional Reach Design Requirements for information on reach limits.)

c. Pre-Mission Training - Training and simulation done on Earth will be conducted in 1-G. The design should be such that the transition from Earth to space environment does not completely negate the effects of this training.

8.2.2.2 Multipurpose Use of Volume Design Considerations

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It is often more efficient to design the workspace so that it can be used for a number of different activities. It may be possible to use a volume which is dedicated to a specific activity and which would otherwise be wasted space when that activity is not being performed. Multipurpose utilization of volume can increase the efficiency of the space module. The activities should be compatible with the surrounding area and with each other. Possible limitations for multipurpose utilization of a volume include:

a. Hygiene and Contamination - One activity may contaminate another, such as body waste management and food preparation.

b. Time - It may take too much time to efficiently convert the volume from one function to another.

c. Privacy Infringement - An activity may infringe on the privacy of a crewmember. This is the main objection to having two persons on different work shifts sharing the same quarters.

8.2.2.3 Physical Dimensions of Crewmembers Design Considerations

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The space module must support mixed crews with different skills living and working together in space for months at a time. The design goal of a space module should be to provide a facility that, within some understandably necessary size constraints, provides a comfortable and functionally efficient environment. In order to achieve this goal, consideration must be given to the physical dimensions of the human. The design must accommodate from the smallest in size to the largest of the selected design crewmember population. Section 3.0, Anthropometrics and Biomechanics, and Paragraph 8.6, Envelope Geometry For Crew Functions, provide data for sizing the space module to accommodate all crewmembers.

8.2.2.4 Module Layout and Arrangement Design Considerations

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Equipment arrangement, grouping, and layout of the space module should enhance crew interaction and facilitate efficient operation. The module layout and arrangement should be based on detailed analyses using recognized human factors engineering techniques. This analysis process should include the following steps:

a. Functional Definition - Definition of the system functions that must occur in the mission.

b. Functional Allocation - Assignment of these functions to equipment, crewmembers, and crew stations.

c. Definition of Tasks and Operations - Determination of the characteristics of the crew tasks and operations required to perform the functions, including:

1. Frequency.

2. Duration.

3. Sequence.

4. Volume required.

5. Special environmental requirements.

6. Privacy and personal space requirements.

d. Space Module Layout - Using the information determined above, the layout of the space module should:

1. Minimize the transit time between related crew stations.

2. Accommodate the expected levels of activity at each station.

3. Isolate stations when necessary for crew health, safety, performance, and privacy.

4. Provide a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

8.2.2.5 Crew Station Location

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Stations that perform related functions should be adjacent to each other, if possible. Activities performed at a station should be compatible with surrounding activities and facilities (i.e. non-interference in terms of physical, visual, or acoustical considerations). Crew stations should be separated or isolated if it improves the overall performance and/or safety of the crewmembers.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, for detailed requirements.)

8.2.2.6 Microgravity

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Appropriate mobility aids, restraints, and orientation cues should be provided throughout the space module to accommodate living and working when in a microgravity environment.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.4, Compartment and Crew Station Orientation, and Paragraph 8.9, Mobility Aids and Restraints Integration, for detailed requirements.)

8.2.2.7 Reconfiguration

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The space module should have design features that minimize required crew skill and time in the event of space module reconfiguration.

8.2.2.8 Decor and Lighting

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The design, decor, and lighting of the space module interior should be configured to enhance the performance, safety, and comfort of the crewmembers.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.11, Windows Integration, Paragraph 8.12, Interior Design and Decor, and Paragraph 8.13 Lighting, for detailed requirements.)

8.2.3 Overall Architectural Design Requirements

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The following requirements apply to the overall architecture of the space module. Reference is made to paragraphs within this Section 8.0, Architecture that expand and detail these requirements.

8.2.3.1 Crew Station Arrangement and Grouping Design Requirements

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Crew stations within the space module shall be arranged and grouped to meet the following goals:

a. Activity Level Accommodation - Each crew station shall be sufficiently large to accommodate the anticipated crew and their activity level.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6, Envelope Geometry For Crew Functions, for detailed requirements.)

b. Transit Time Optimization - Crew transit times shall be optimized.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.7, Traffic Flow, for detailed requirements.)

c. Station Accessibility - Appropriate cues shall be provided for the location and identification of crew stations. Translation paths and crew station entry and exits shall be sized and located to accommodate anticipated traffic patterns and volume.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.5, Location Coding, Paragraph 8.8, Translation Paths, and Paragraph 8.10, Hatches and Doors, for detailed requirements.)

8.2.3.2 Dedicated vs. Multipurpose Space Utilization Design Requirements

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The interior accommodations shall be designed so that multipurpose utilization of the space meets the requirements:

a. Compatibility of activities within crew stations - Activities that occur within the same station shall not interfere with each other. It is best if the different activities occur at different times.

b. Compatibility with surrounding activities and facilities - Each of the activities performed at a station shall be compatible with surrounding activities and facilities.

8.3 CREW STATION ADJACENCIES

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8.3.1 Introduction

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This paragraph discusses the overall layout of the space module and provides the rules and restrictions concerning the placement of crew stations adjacent to one another. The design requirements for specific crew stations are given in Section 10.0, Activity Centers, and Section 9.0, Workstations.

8.3.2 Crew Station Adjacencies Design Considerations

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8.3.2.1 General Adjacency Design Considerations

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Design of any system or facility should be based on the logical sequence and smooth flow of activities that are to occur in the facility. Generally, the most efficient layout is to place crew stations adjacent to each other when they are used sequentially or in close coordination. There are some limitations to this general rule, however. Adjacent positions should not degrade any of the activities in the stations, nor should the positioning degrade any of the activities in the surrounding stations. General adjacency considerations, beyond simple activity flow, are listed and discussed below.

a. Physical Interference - Some crew stations require a high volume of entering and exiting traffic (both personnel and equipment). Placement of these stations adjacent to each other could result in traffic congestion and loss of efficiency.

b. Noise - Activities such as communications, sleeping and rest, and mental concentration are adversely affected by noise. Activity centers generating significant noise levels should not be placed adjacent to those activity centers adversely affected by noise.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.4, Acoustics, for specific noise tolerance levels for various activities.)

c. Lighting - Ambient illumination from one activity center may either interfere with or benefit the activities in an adjacent center. Activities that require illumination will benefit from the Activities adversely effected by light could be:

1. Certain experiments or lab activities such as photographic development.

2. Sleeping.

3. Use of some optical equipment (such as windows) and self illuminated displays (such as CRT).

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13, Lighting, for further information on lighting.)

d. Privacy - There are cultural and individual requirements that should be considered. Certain personal activities such as sleeping, personal hygiene, waste management, and personnel interactions require some degree of privacy. These private areas should not be placed in passageways or highly congested activity centers.

e. Security - Many of the experiments and production processes will be confidential to a specific industry or organization. These activity centers may require visual, audio, or electrical isolation from the rest of the space module.

f. Vibration - Certain personal activities, such as relaxation and sleep, will be disturbed by vibrations and jolts. In addition, many production, experimental, and control functions will require a stable and vibration-free platform. Crew stations of these types should be isolated from sources of vibration.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.5, Vibrations, for vibration exposure limits.)

g. Contamination - Crew station activities can generate contaminants. These activities may include manufacture, maintenance, personal hygiene, or laboratories. Other crew station activities may be extremely sensitive to contamination. These activities include food storage and consumption, laboratory research, some production processes, and health care. Contaminant sources and areas highly sensitive to contamination should be physically separated in the overall space module layout.

8.3.2.2 Specific Adjacency Design Considerations

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Analyses have been performed on typical space module crew functions to determine adjacency considerations for specific crew stations and functions (Reference 319). The functions considered in the analysis are listed in Figure 8.3.2.2-1. The following criteria were used to evaluate adjacency of the functions. Each of these criteria were given equal weighting:

Figure 8.3.2.2-1 Typical Functions of a Space Module Crew

Crew support

Meal preparation

Eating

Meal clean-up

Exercise

Medical care

Full-body cleansing

Hand/face cleansing

Personal hygiene

Urination/defecation

Training

Sleep

Private recreation and leisure

Small-group recreation and leisure

Dressing/undressing

Clothing maintenance

Station operations

Meetings and teleconferences

Planning and scheduling

Subsystem monitoring and control

Pre/post-EVA operations

IVA support of EVA operations

Proximity operations

General housekeeping

ORU maintenance and repair

Logistics and resupply

Mission operations

Payload support
Life sciences experiments
Materials processing experiments

NASA-STD-3000 85

a. Transition Frequency - The frequency with which crewmembers switch from performing one function to another.

b. Sequential Dependency - The extent to which one function provides the reason, or need, to perform another function.

c. Support Equipment Commonality - The percentage of support equipment shared by the functions.

d. Noise Output and Sensitivity - The potential for noise generated by crew activities and support equipment associated with one function to interfere with the performance of another function.

e. Privacy Requirements - The similarity of the privacy requirements (both audio and visual).

The results of the study are shown in Figure 8.3.2.2-2. Crew functions are plotted in the chart. The chart describes the functions on two scales: Public Functions/Private Functions and Group Functions/Individual Functions. The relative position of the functions on the chart indicate the relative compatibility of these functions. Consider grouping stations which support the functions that are close together on the chart. Consider separating stations which support the functions that are separated on the chart.

Figure 8.3.2.2-2 Consideration for the Relative Locations of Space Module Functions Based on the Results of Functional Relationships Analysis.

figure of Consideration for the Relative Locations of Space Module Functions Based on the Results of Functional Relationships Analysis

Reference: 319, p. 60; NASA-STD-3000 86

8.3.3 Crew Station Adjacencies Design Requirements

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8.3.3.1 Adjacent Crew Station Design Requirements

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If possible (and within the restrictions of Paragraph 8.3.3.2, Non-Adjacent Crew Stations - Design Requirements), crew stations shall be placed adjacent to each other (or combined) when any of the following conditions exist:

a. Sequential Dependency - The activities occurring in one station are sequentially dependent on the activities occurring in another station (i.e., one activity provides the reason or need to perform the other activity).

b. High Transition Frequency - Crewmembers change frequently from the activities occurring in one station to the activities occurring in another station.

c. Shared Support Equipment - The equipment used to support the activities in each station is similar or identical.

8.3.3.2 Non-Adjacent Crew Stations - Design Requirements

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Crew stations shall not be located adjacent to each other when any of the following conditions exist:

a. Physical Interference - Crew traffic flow, equipment movement, and activities of one station physically restrict the activities in another station.

b. Environmental Interference - The activities in one station affect the surrounding environment so that the activities in an adjacent station are degraded. These environmental effects include lighting, noise, vibration, heat.

c. Degradation of Crew Health and Safety - The activities or contents of one station could, within a reasonable possibility, degrade the health and safety of the crew in an adjacent station.

d. Infringement on Privacy - A station infringes on the privacy of the crew members in an adjacent station to an extent unacceptable to the crew members.

e. Infringement on Security - A station infringes on the security and confidentiality of the activities of an adjacent station to an extent unacceptable to the mission of the two functions.

8.4 COMPARTMENT AND CREW STATION ORIENTATION

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8.4.1 Introduction

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This paragraph discusses the orientation of crew stations (workstations, crew activity centers, etc.) within the space module. The information in this section applies to a microgravity environment where there is no gravity to define a single orientation. The design requirements for specific crew stations are given in Section 10.0, Activity Centers, and Section 9.0, Workstations.

8.4.2 Orientation Design Considerations

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In a 1-G or partial gravity environment, orientation is not a particular problem. Down is the direction in which gravity acts and the human is normally required to work with feet down and head up. In a microgravity environment, the human working position is arbitrary. There is no gravity cue that defines up or down. In microgravity, orientation is defined primarily through visual cues which are under the control of the system designer. The orientation within a particular crew station is referred to as a local vertical. There are several orientation factors to be considered when designing a microgravity environment.

a. Work Surfaces - Microgravity expands the number of possible work surfaces (walls, ceilings, as well as floors) within a given volume. This could result in a number of different local verticals within a module.

b. Training and Testing - Some of the working arrangements that are possible in microgravity will not easily be duplicated on Earth. Pre-mission training and testing will suffer with these arrangements. Additional training might have to be conducted during the actual mission. This could drastically reduce the effectiveness of a short duration mission.

c. Disorientation - Humans, raised in a 1-G environment, are accustomed to forming a mental image of their environment with a consistent orientation. People locate themselves and objects according to this mental image. If the person is viewing the environment in an unusual orientation, this mental image is not supported. This can promote disorientation, space sickness, temporary loss of direction, and overall decreased performance.

(Refer to Paragraph 4.5, Vestibular System, for more information on disorientation in zero-gravity.)

d. Visual Orientation Cues - Visual cues are needed to help the crewmember quickly adjust his or her orientation for a more familiar view of the world. These visual cues should define some sort of horizontal or vertical reference plane (such as the edges of a CRT or window). Of the two, it appears that the horizontal cue is more effective. Further research is presently being conducted by NASA to determine additional guidelines for the design of visual orientation cues.

e. Equipment Operation - Due to prior training and physical characteristics of the human, some pieces of equipment are more efficiently operated in one specific orientation. Labeling must also be properly oriented to be readable. Direction of motion stereotypes exist for most controls. For instance, in the US, power is turned on when a switch is positioned up or toward the head. If equipment items, labels, and controls have different orientations within the same crew station, human errors are likely to occur.

8.4.3 Orientation Design Requirements

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The following are design requirements for establishing an orientation within a space module:

a. Consistent Orientation - Each crew station shall have a local vertical (a consistent arrangement of vertical cues within a given visual field) so that the vertical orientation within a specific work station or activity center shall remain consistent. (See Figure 8.4.3-1 for illustration.)

b. Visual Orientation Cue - A visual cue shall be provided to allow the crewmember to quickly adjust to the orientation of the activity center or workstation.

c. Separation - When adjacent workstations or activity centers have vertical orientations differing by 90 degrees or more, then clearly definable demarcations shall separate the two areas.

8.4.4 Example Orientation Design Solutions

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One of the modules of Skylab, the Orbital Work Station (OWS), had a consistent local vertical and another module, the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), did not. It was found that people adapted more quickly to the orientation of the OWS than they did to the MDA. It also took crewmembers longer to locate a particular storage container in the MDA than the OWS.

Figure 8.4.3-1 Equipment Shall Have a Consistent Orientation Within a Workstation or Activity Center

Graphic demonstrating equipment with consistent versus inconsistent orientations

Reference:  1, Figure 3.2-2, p. 3.2-1; NASA-STD-3000 87

8.5 LOCATION CODING

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8.5.1 Introduction

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This section discusses the standards for defining locations throughout a space module and or vehicle. The location coding system shall apply to all crew interface areas including:

a. Control and display panels.

b. Stowage areas, lockers, subcompartments, and containers.

c. Access panels.

d. Systems, components, and equipment.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.5, Labeling and Coding, for specific labeling and coding design requirements and considerations.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.4, Compartment and Crew Station Orientation, for requirements defining orientation in micro- gravity.)

8.5.2 Location Coding Design Considerations

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8.5.2.1 Users of A Location Coding System Design Considerations

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Many different people will use the space module location coding system (both crewmember and non-crewmember personnel) and the system will be used in a wide variety of situations (both emergency and routine). It is therefore important that the system be simple to use, easy to remember, easy to communicate, and consistent throughout the system. The following is a list of the personnel who might use a space module location coding system and ways in which it might be used:

a. Space Module Crew - Locations codes are necessary to minimize crew search time and maintain consistent equipment placement during nonuse periods. This is especially important for single equipment items requiring rapid use by more than one crewmember.

b. Ground Support Personnel - A location coding system will be used to communicate information and instructions between ground and module crews.

c. Crews of Other Modules - Location codes will be necessary for docking or any coordinated activity between modules.

d. Maintenance and Emergency Personnel - Repairs and rescue operations require an accurate and easily communicated location coding system.

e. Logistics and Resupply Personnel - Location codes are required for inventory assessment and resupply plan development and communication.

8.5.2.2 Location Coding System Implementation-Design Considerations

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In order to be effective, it is important that a consistent coding system be established early in the space module development. The system must be incorporated into the design of space module compartments, components, control consoles, racks, and all general installations. This coding system must then be used throughout all phases of crew training and system documentation.

8.5.3 Location Coding Design Requirements

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8.5.3.1 Alphanumeric Coding Design Requirements

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An alphanumeric coding system shall be established for the space module. The system shall have the following characteristics:

a. Ease of Use - The coding system shall be simple to use, communicate, and memorize.

b. Module Consistency - The coding system shall be consistent throughout the space module and attached components. The system shall be consistent for both interior and exterior locations.

c. User Consistency - The coding system shall be consistent for all personnel who use and maintain the module. The system shall be compatible with (if not identical to) design engineering location systems.

d. Flexibility - The coding system shall be flexible to allow adaptation to space module design changes and reconfiguration.

8.5.3.2 Directional Designation Design Requirements

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Whenever possible, a consistent directional orientation shall be established for the entire space module. The following directional designation terms shall apply to space modules:

a. Forward/Aft - Forward shall be defined by the plus velocity vector of the space module. If there is no designated velocity vector, then forward shall be arbitrarily defined.

b. Up/Down - An up/down directional designation shall be established perpendicular to the forward/aft and port/starboard plane.

c. Port/Starboard- When facing in the forward direction, port shall be defined as the direction to the left and starboard shall be defined as the direction to the right.

8.5.3.3 Location & Orientation By Color Coding Design Requirements

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The following requirements apply to the use of color for location and orientation coding:

a. Colors - The colors selected for coding shall be consistent with the requirements in Paragraph 9.5.3.2.i, Color Coding.

b. Consistency - If color is used for location coding purposes, the colors shall have the same operational significance throughout the space module and shall be consistent in application.

c. Space Module Lighting - Exterior lighting for orientation coding of space module shall be in accordance with the following practices:

1. Color code - The colors shall follow the code in Figure 8.5.3.3-1

2. Lamp intensity - Minimum lamp intensity is cited in Figure 8.5.3.3-1. These intensities are to be measured 60 degrees off the center line of the cone of radiation.

3. Chromaticity - The chromaticity of space module lights shall be as defined in Figure 8.5.3.3-1 and MIL-C-25050.

Figure 8.5.3.3-1 Spacecraft Orientation Coding Lights

COLOR VEHICLE LOCATION LUMINOUS INTENSITY CANDELA (CANDLE POWER) CHROMATICITY (CIE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM COORDINATES)

Red

Port (left) side

2.5(0.2)

X - 0.690 ± 0.020

Y - 0.290 ± 0.020

Green

Starboard (right) side

6.3 (0.5)

X - 0.100 ± 0.050

Y - 0.700 ± 0.060

Yellow

Bottom

2.5(0.2)

X - 0.580 ± 0.020

Y - 0.410 ± 0.015

White

Aft (preferred)

2.5(0.2)

X - 0.350 ± 0.050

Y - 0.365 ± 0.030

Blue

Aft (not preferred)

6.3(0.5)

X - not greater than 0.245

Y - not greater than 0.200

Dual white/ Yellow

Forward

See above

See above

Note: *Assumes color recognition up to 600 meters (2000 ft)

Reference: 199, pgs. 17, 18, 19 NASA-STD-3000 88, Rev. B

8.5.3.4 Location Coding With Placards Design Requirements

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A space module shall have markings to provide the crew with equipment and compartment identification, and directional and spatial orientation information. The specific requirements for location coding placards are as follows:

a. Map - A map of location codes shall be provided at the entrances to areas where the coding scheme is not obvious to the crewmember or for areas in which there is a significant amount of preparation activity such as stowage, adjustment, or maintenance of items.

b. Placards on Movable Items - Movable items and their stowage locations shall be labeled as necessary to ensure the item is returned to the proper location after use.

c. Control Room Placards - Control rooms shall have placards which identify the room and the control station within the room.

d. Directional Designation - A visual cue shall be provided to allow the crewmember to quickly adjust to the orientation of the crew station.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.4, Compartment and Crew Station Orientation, for additional information concerning orientation requirements.)

e. Markings - Label and placard format and markings shall meet the requirements in Paragraph 9.5, Labeling and Coding.

8.6 ENVELOPE GEOMETRY FOR CREW FUNCTIONS

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8.6.1 Introduction

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This section provides information for sizing the space module for human work and habitation. Physical body envelopes for various crew functions are given. The information in this section can be used to develop a preliminary overall layout of the space module.

(Refer to Section 9.0, Workstations, and Section 10.0, Activity Centers, for detail design requirements and consideration for specific crew stations.)

(Refer to Section 3.0, Anthropometrics and Biomechanics, for additional information on human size and work envelope.)

8.6.2 Envelope Geometry Design Considerations

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There are four basic factors that affect the required habitable volume and envelope geometry in a space module. These factors are listed below:

a. Mission duration.

b. Visual factors.

c. Physical body envelope.

d. Social factors.

Each of these factors are discussed in Paragraphs 8.6.2.1 through 8.6.2.4.

8.6.2.1 Mission Duration Design Considerations

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The duration of the mission has an overall effect on the required envelope geometry. Increasing mission duration requires a greater physical envelope to accommodate mission tasks and personal needs. Crew accommodation needs are additive, so the total required habitable volume per crewmember increases with mission duration. Guidelines for determining the amount of habitable volume per crewmember for varying mission durations are shown in Figure 8.6.2.1-1.

Figure 8.6.2.1-1 Guideline for Determination of Total Habitable Volume per Person in the Space Module

Graph providing Guidelines for Total Habitable Volume per Person in the Space Module

NASA-STD-3000 90

8.6.2.2 Visual Design Considerations

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As the mission duration increases, there is a greater tendency for the crew to feel confined and cramped. This can affect psychological health and crewmember performance. The judged physical space is not necessarily relative to the physical size of the room. The feeling of spaciousness can be achieved visually through the arrangement, color, and design of the walls and partitions of the space module. Some of the facts that are known about visual spaciousness are listed below:

a. Distance From Viewer - Errors of overestimation of space increase as the distance from the viewer increases. This indicates desirability of long view axes.

b. Room Shape - Irregular shaped rooms are perceived to have more volume than compact or regular shaped rooms of equal volume.

c. Viewing Along a Surface - Distances judged along surfaces are overestimated with respect to those judged through empty space. If an observer looks along a wall to another boundary wall, the boundary wall would be judged as further away than if it is seen from the same physical distance across the empty space of the room.

d. Lighting and Color - The effects of brightness, color saturation, and illumination levels on perception of volume are listed in Figure 8.6.2.2-1.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.12.2, Interior Design and Decor Design Considerations, for details of the effects of lighting and color.)

e. Clutter - Clutter, or items that visually detract from long view axes, decrease the perceived room volume.

f. Windows - Windows allow the crewmember to focus on objects (such as Earth) outside the space module. This can significantly increase the sense of spaciousness and psychological well-being of the crewmember.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.11, Windows Integration, for additional information on the use of windows in architecture.)

Figure 8.6.2.2-1 Effects of Brightness, Color, Color Saturation, and Illumination Level on Perception of Volume

Volume perception (roominess) Brightness* Color saturation Illumination level

Enlarge

Areas will be enlarged by lightness. (Use to alleviate feelings of oppression or "closed-in").

Pale or desaturated colors "recede" and open up a room

High

Close-in

Areas will be closed-in by darkness

Dark or saturated hues "protrude", and close-in a room

Low

Note:  * Brightness is a function of surface reflectance and illuminance

Reference: 134, Figure 4-35 With Updates NASA-STD-3000 91

8.6.2.3 Body Envelope Design Considerations

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The interior volume of the space module must accommodate not only the static human body but also the body when it performs the activities required of the mission. The body motion envelope is a conceptual surface which just encloses the extreme body motion of an activity. Crewmembers vary in size and the body motion envelope varies accordingly. The space module should not intrude on the body motion envelope of the larger crewmembers and yet not be so large that it is inconvenient or inefficient for the smaller crewmembers. In microgravity, additional considerations must be made for an expanded range of possible movements and for the neutral body posture. Approximate dimensions required to accommodate the body motion envelope of the 95th percentile male crewmember performing various IVA activities in microgravity are given in Figure 8.6.2.3-1. These volumes can be arranged and grouped to give an approximate estimate of the interior volume required for different crew stations.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations, for a definition of the American male crewmember.)

(Refer to Section 3.0, Anthropometrics and Biomechanics, for further information on the body dimensions and the neutral body posture.)

Figure 8.6.2.3-1 Approximate Dimension Required to Accommodate the Body Motion Envelope of the 95th Percentile American Male

Sketch of a man in a box to demonstrate the Approximate Dimension Required to Accommodate the Body Motion Envelope of the 95th Percentile American Male

(Refer to Figure 3.3.3.3.1-4

Reference: 215, pp. 38, 39; 310; 320 With Updates; NASA-STD-3000 92

Figure 8.6.2.3-1 Approximate Dimension Required to Accommodate the Body Motion Envelope of the 95th Percentile American Male (Part 2)

Sketches of a man putting on pants and tumbling to demonstrate Approximate Dimension Required to Accommodate the Body Motion Envelope of the 95th Percentile American Male (Continued)

Reference: 215, pp. 38, 39; 310; 320 With Updates; NASA-STD-3000 92

8.6.2.4 Social Design Considerations

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Some of the social factors that should be considered in the layout of the interior volume of the space module are discussed below:

a. Privacy - Visual privacy is a major concern for some activities such as body waste management and personal hygiene. Volumes devoted to these functions must be visually isolated. In addition, it has been found that a general sense of privacy increases when visual exposure of the individual is decreased and the individual has controllable visual access to the outside world. In other words, the individual feels private if he or she has the ability of observing without being observed. This should be considered when designing individual crew quarters.

b. Leadership Role - The size and location of a crewmember's private quarters can impart a sense of status to other crewmembers. If desirable for organizational purposes, this fact can be used in configuring the space module.

c. Proxemics - Proxemics encompasses the study of space as a communications medium. Some factors to consider are:

1. When conversational or recreational space is necessary, the space should be configured so that the crewmembers can be at distances of 0.5 to 1.2 meters (1.5 to 4.0 feet) and at angles of approximately 90 to 180 degrees from each other. In general, 90 degrees is preferred for casual conversation while 180 degrees is for competitive games or negotiations.

2. Equal relative heights among social conversant should be maintained through spatial configuration and the placement of restraints.

3. In a socially communicating group it should be possible for all to position themselves in relatively similar body orientation and limb location. Maintaining a similar vertical orientation is also desirable.

8.6.3 Envelope Geometry Design Requirements

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8.6.3.1 Crew Station Body Envelopes Design Requirements

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The following are requirements for crew station body envelope geometry:

a. Adequate Volume - Adequate crew station volume shall be provided for the crewmembers to perform tasks and activities (including exit and entry) without restriction. The volume shall also accommodate tools and equipment used in the task.

b. Accessibility - The geometric arrangement of crew stations shall provide necessary and adequate ingress and egress envelopes for all functions within the station.

c. Full Size Range Accommodation - All workstations shall be sized to meet the functional reach limits of the smaller of the defined crewmember size range and yet shall not constrict or confine the body envelope of the larger of the defined crewmember size range.

8.6.3.2 Total Module Habitable Volume Design Requirements

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The following requirements apply to the total habitable volume in the module:

Mission Function Accommodation - Sufficient total habitable volume shall be provided to accommodate the full range of required mission functions.

No Degradation to Mission - Sufficient habitable volume shall be provided and configured to decrease the possibility of degradation of crew performance due to detrimental psychological effects from feelings of confinement.

Design shall permit total habitable volume growth to accommodate the full range of required mission functions as number of crewmembers and station operations increase.

8.6.4 Example Volume Allocations Design Solutions

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8.6.4.1 Skylab Food Management Compartment

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The Skylab Food Management Compartment for a crew of three was combined with a wardroom (see Figure 8.6.4.1-1). The area measured 2.29 m (7.5 ft) long by 2.44 m (8 ft) wide by 1.98 m (6.5 ft) high. Total combined habitable volume was 11.1 m3 (391 ft3). This compartment was used by three crewmembers for a mission of 84 days.

Access to the dining position for the crewman next to the freezer was judged not adequate when the other positions were occupied. The crewman in the inboard dining position could not reach the food storage area without disturbing the other diners.

Figure 8.6.4.1-1 Skylab Food Management Compartment

Cross sections sketches of Skylab Food Management Compartment

Reference: 130, figure 7, p. 11; NASA-STD-3000 93

8.6.4.2 Skylab Sleep Compartment

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The Skylab sleep compartment (Figure 8.6.4.2-1) for one crew member was 0.92 m (3 ft) long by 1.07 m (3.5 ft) wide by 1.98 m (6.5 ft) high. The total habitable volume was approximately 1.92 m3 (68 ft3).

Figure 8.6.4.2-1 Skylab Sleep Compartments

Transparent sketch of Skylab Sleep Compartments

Reference: 155, p. 3-4; NASA-STD-3000 94

8.6.4.3 Skylab Waste Management and Personal Hygiene Compartments

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The Skylab combined both the waste management and hygiene functions in a single compartment. The dimensions were 1.98 m (6.5 ft) long by 0.92 m (3.0 ft) wide by 1.98 m (6.5 ft) high. The total combined free volume was 3.57 m3 (126 ft3). The total habitable volume utilized by the hygiene function was approximately 2.42 m3 (85 ft3). The total habitable volume utilized by the waste management function was approximately 2.42 m3 (85 ft3).

This compartment was satisfactory for three crewmembers for 85 days, but interference between crewmen doing both functions simultaneously led to their suggesting separate compartments.

8.7 TRAFFIC FLOW

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8.7.1 Introduction

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This section contains information for planning and designing the traffic flow within the space module.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.8, Translation Paths, Paragraph 8.9, Mobility Aids and Restraints Architectural Integration, and Paragraph 8.10, Hatches and Doors, for specific data on the design and location of IVA translation paths, mobility aids and restraints, and hatches and doors.)

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5, EVA Mobility and Translation, for information on EVA traffic flow.)

8.7.2 Traffic Flow Design Considerations

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8.7.2.1 Optimization of Traffic Flow Design Considerations

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The following analytical process can help to optimize traffic flow and crew functioning:

a. Analyze Functions and Tasks - Determine the type and level of activity that occur at each of the crew stations and the required movement of crew and equipment between the stations.

b. Locate Crew Stations - Locate crew stations to minimize the traffic flow.

c. Design Translation Paths - Once the crew stations are located, design the translation paths for efficient traffic flow. First, design the paths to accommodate the traffic flow requirements of the worst case conditions. Then, complete the design to meet other traffic flow requirements. The following are steps for translation path design:

1. Define traffic flow details: number of persons, number of transits, type of packages, speed of transit, type of activity surrounding the path, etc. Be sure to identify worst case traffic flow conditions.

2. Use the above information and Figure 8.7.2.1-1 to determine the required translation path.

3. Use the information in Paragraph 8.8.3, Translation Path Design Requirements, to determine the minimum path size.

4. Accommodate possible congestion at intersections through scheduling, increase of path size, provision for visibility of crossing traffic, etc.

Figure 8.7.2.1-1 Guide for Determining Type of Translation Path

Priorities of Functions Usage Type of translation path
(refer to Paragraph 8.8)

Primary - - IVA and EVA

Frequently traveled path by both IVA and EVA suited crewmembers. Will accommodate translation of an EVA crewmember with package. Can be used as an emergency path

Primary passageway

Primary -- IVA only

Frequently traveled path but only by IVA suited crewmembers. Will accommodate translation of an IVA crewmember with package. Can be used as an emergency IVA path

Standard passageway.

Secondary - - IVA only

Very low frequency transit from one point to another, IVA only

Pass-through

Emergency

Infrequently traveled but necessary for emergency repairs, rescue, or escape. Will accommodate EVA suited crewmember. Packages must be translated in front or behind crewmember.

Minimal passageway

Reference: 250 With Updates NASA-STD-3000 178

8.7.2.2 IVA Translation Rates Design Considerations

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IVA translation rates in microgravity were measured in Skylab and are listed below:

a. Ordinary Point To Point Translation - 0.4 to 0.6 m/sec (1.5 to 2.0 ft/sec).

b. Moving Large or Massive Equipment - 0.15 to 0.30 m/sec (0.5 to 1.0 ft/sec).

c. Off-Duty Gymnastics and Play - 1.8 m/sec (6 ft/sec).

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9.2, Strength - Design Considerations, for additional information on translation rates and force capabilities.)

8.7.2.3 Equipment Transfer Design Considerations

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Crewmembers may be required to handle and transfer equipment and packages. The following factors must be considered in designing for equipment and package transfer in microgravity conditions:

a. Task Constraints - The planning of equipment transfer traffic routes must take into account task constraints such as time, safety requirements (protection of both crew and equipment), required positioning accuracy, other traffic, and gravity conditions.

b. Translation Path and Equipment Size - A translation path approximately the size of the equipment being transported will degrade both visibility and use of hands and feet for translation mobility and stability (see Figure 8.7.2.3-1). Equipment transfer is more efficient in a larger aisle that allows parallel passage of both the crewmember and the package.

c. Mobility Aids and Package Handles - If handrails must be used for mobility, then package handles or straps must be provided to free the crewmember's hands.

d. Equipment Mass - Although there are no theoretical limits on the mass of cargo that can be transported in microgravity, a large mass may require a track or restraints along the translation path to keep it under control.

(Refer to Paragraph 11.12, Packaging, for additional information on equipment configuration for transport.)

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9, Strength, for information on mass handling capabilities.)

8.7.3 Traffic Flow Design Requirements

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8.7.3.1 Overall Traffic Flow Design Requirements

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All traffic routes shall allow movement of personnel and equipment within the time constraints of both normal operational and emergency conditions.

8.7.3.2 Congestion Avoidance Design Requirements

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Traffic congestion shall be avoided. The following methods shall be taken to avoid congestion:

a. Reduce the Need for Traffic - Crew stations shall be located and designed to minimize the need for transit within the space module.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, and Paragraph 10.12, Storage, for additional information on reducing the need for traffic.)

b. Alternate Paths - Provide alternate paths around congested areas.

c. Proper Scheduling - Schedule activities to avoid congestion.

d. Reduce Congestion Due to Large Volume Transfer - Traffic flow patterns shall minimize the distance large volumes are transported and reduce as much as possible congestion caused by large volumes transported through tight areas.

e. Reduce Cross Traffic - Avoid crossing heavily traveled paths.

f. Translation Path Size - Translation paths and hatch and door openings shall be of proper size and configuration to accommodate predicted traffic flow.

Figure 8.7.2.3-1 Relationship of Aisle Size to Ease of Equipment Transport (Microgravity Conditions) 

Sketch of man pushing a box through two tunnels

NASA-STD-3000 179

8.7.3.3 Noninterference with Other Activities Design Requirements

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Traffic flow shall not interfere with other unrelated operational and recreational activities of the crew. These activities include sensitive space module control, routine servicing, experimentation, eating, sleep, and relaxation.

8.7.3.4 Emergency and Escape Route Design Requirements

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The design for traffic flow shall take into account the possibility of a space module or subsystem failure or damage that could require evacuation. Specifically, the following requirements apply:

a. Escape Routes and Isolation Areas - Crewmembers shall be provided with escape routes for egress and/or isolation in the event of the need for an emergency egress from their immediate location.

b. Dual Escape Routes - Where practical, dual escape routes shall be provided from all activity areas to serve in the event that the use of one route is impossible.

c. Protection of Entry/Exit Path - Provisions shall be made to the maximum extent possible to ensure that compartment entry/exit paths can be maintained in the event of an accident (fire, explosion, abrupt accelerations, etc.).

d. Escape From Crew Stations - Crew station openings and egress paths shall be large enough to permit rapid egress.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6.2.3, Body Envelope Design Considerations, and Section 3.0, Anthropometrics, for body dimension data.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.8.3, Translation Path Design Requirements, and Paragraph 8.10.3, Hatch and Door Design Requirements, for data to size translation paths.)

e. Emergency Rescue and Return Route - An emergency rescue and return route shall be available for all planned IVA activity areas. The route shall be capable of accommodating an EVA-suited individual.

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5.3.5, EVA Passageway Requirements, for EVA route size.)

f. Dead End Corridors - Dead End Corridors shall be avoided whenever possible.

g. Emergency Regulation and Routes - Emergency traffic regulations and appropriately marked emergency routes shall be established for safe and efficient movement of personnel and equipment.

8.8 TRANSLATION PATHS

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8.8.1 Introduction

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This paragraph contains information for the design of crew translation paths that interconnect interior space module compartments. This information applies to IVA environment and to microgravity conditions.

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5, EVA Mobility and Translation, for information on EVA translation paths.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.7, Traffic Flow, Paragraph 8.9, Mobility Aids and Restraints Architectural Integration, and Paragraph 8.10, Hatches and Doors, for specific data on the design and location of IVA translation paths, mobility aids and restraints, and hatches and doors.)

8.8.2 Translation Path Design Considerations

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The following factors must be considered when designing translation paths in a space module:

a. Type of Translation Path - The required size and shape of the translation path depend on its function. Functional guidelines for selection of the type of translation path are provided in Paragraph 8.7, Traffic-flow, Figure 8.7.2.1-1. Design considerations for each type of translation path are given below:

1. Pass Through - A pass-through (or tunnel) need only be large enough to permit passage by a crewmember with his or her long axis in the direction of travel. A pass-through is illustrated in Figure 8.8.2-1. By definition, the pass-through need only accommodate an IVA clothed crewmember.

2. Minimal Passageway - A minimal passageway is similar to a pass-through but must accommodate an EVA suited crewmember.

3. Standard Passageway - A standard passageway should accommodate a crewmember in an upright working position or neutral body posture. A standard passageway is illustrated in Figure 8.8.2-1. By definition, the standard passageway need only accommodate an IVA clothed crewmember.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.4, Neutral Body Posture, and Paragraph 8.6.2.3, Body Envelope Design Considerations, for neutral body posture size and configuration.)

4. Primary Passageway - A primary passageway is the same as a standard passageway but must accommodate an EVA suited crewmember.

b. Aisle Clearances - Aisles are defined as translation paths that pass crew stations (as shown in Figure 8.8.2-2). In this case the translation path must be located outside the maximum working envelope of the crew station.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6, Envelope Geometry For Crew Functions, for additional information on crew station envelopes.)

c. Translation of Packages and Equipment - The translation path should be sized to accommodate the largest crewmember and any packages or equipment that must be transported. Both the package size, the manner that the package is to be carried, and acceptable clearances must be considered. See in Figure 8.8.2-3 for illustration.

d. Number of Persons Using Translation Path - The translation path must be sized according to the traffic considerations. Persons often travel in pairs. A busy path may have to be wide enough for four crewmembers: two pairs passing each other.

e. Orientation of the Body - Turning or rotation required to position the body to translate from one path to another path, module, or door requires an increase in the minimum path size. The minimum dimensions of the path will be defined by the body orientation and method of negotiating the path.

Figure 8.8.2-1 Types of Translation Paths

sketches of crew members with and without EVA suits going through tunnels

Reference: 250; NASA-STD-3000 210

Figure 8.8.2-2 Aisles: The Translation Path Envelopes Should Not Conflict With The Maximum Crew Station Working Envelopes

sketches of Aisle traffic: The Translation Path Envelopes Should Not Conflict With The Maximum Crew Station Working Envelopes

Reference: 250; NASA-STD-3000 211

Figure 8.8.2-3 Size and Shape of the Translation Path Depends on Package, Manner in Which it is Carried, and Required Clearances

sketches of person pushing box through tunnels to demonstrate Size and Shape of the Translation Path Depends on Package, Manner in Which it is Carried, and Required Clearances

Reference: 250; NASA-STD-3000 212

8.8.3 Translation Path Design Requirements

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8.8.3.1 Minimum Translation Path Dimensions Design Requirements

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Minimum cross sectional dimensions of microgravity translation paths for one crewmember in light clothing are shown in Figure 8.8.3.1-1. Translation paths that must accommodate more than one crewmember shall be enlarged by multiples of the single person dimensions.

8.8.3.2 Clearances Design Requirements

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In addition to the minimum dimensions given in Paragraph 8.8.3.1, translation paths shall be designed to provide the following clearances:

a. Equipment or Package Clearances - Translation paths through which equipment or packages must be transported shall allow sufficient clearances for the safety of both the equipment and the space module.

b. Orientation and Directional Change Clearances - Additional clearance volume shall be provided as required for the crewmember to make changes in orientation and/or direction of travel. Refer to the third section of Figure 8.6.2.3-1.

8.8.3.3 Translation Path Obstructions and Hazards Design Requirements

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The following translation path obstructions and hazards shall be minimized:

a. Injury or Damage From Translation Path Surface - Provide rounded corners, padding, smooth surfaces, and/or eliminate projections to minimize possibility of injury to the crewmember or damage to transferred equipment or space module during translation.

(Refer to Paragraph 6.3, Mechanical Hazards, for details on elimination of these hazards.)

b. Damage to Nearby Equipment - Equipment located near traffic paths may be used as a grasp surface or a surface from which crewmembers propel themselves. It shall therefore be designed to withstand a crew-imposed design load of 556 N (125 lbf) and an ultimate load of at least 778 N (175 lbf).

c. Collisions at Intersections - Intersecting translation paths with heavy traffic flow shall incorporate means to minimize collisions. These means can include mirrors at cross paths, windows in doors, warning lights, or auditory warnings.

d. Obstructions and Entanglements - The translation path and surrounding areas shall be designed to minimize the possibility of entanglement of translating crewmembers or equipment with loose objects such as restraints, cables, hoses, wires, etc.

Figure 8.8.3.1-1 Minimum Translation Path Dimensions for Microgravity, One Crew Member in Light Clothing

Sketch of crew member in different shaped tunnels to demonstrate Minimum Translation Path Dimensions for Microgravity, One Crew Member in Light Clothing

NASA-STD-3000 213

8.8.3.4 Marking of Translation Paths - Design Requirements

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Emergency translation paths shall be marked in accordance with MIL-A-25165B.

8.9 MOBILITY AIDS AND RESTRAINTS ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION

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8.9.1 Introduction

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This section discusses considerations and requirements for locating mobility aids and restraints within the space module architecture. The information applies to microgravity conditions only.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.4.2.3, Workstation Restraints and Mobility Aid Design Requirements, for additional information on the placement of restraints in workstations.)

(Refer to Paragraph 14.4, EVA Workstations and Restraints, and Paragraph 14.5, EVA Mobility and Translation, for information on the use of restraints and mobility aids in the EVA environment.)

(Refer to Paragraph 11.7, Restraints, and Paragraph 11.8, Mobility Aids, for information on the specific design considerations and requirements for restraint and mobility aid hardware design.)

8.9.2 Mobility Aids & Restraints Integration Design Considerations

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8.9.2.1 Location of IVA Mobility Aids Design Considerations

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The following considerations should be observed when locating IVA mobility aids:

a. Method of Use - Previous experience has shown that mobility aids such as hand rails are not used for hand over hand translation. Mobility aids are used primarily for control of body orientation, speed, and stability. After humans gain confidence in free-flight translation, contact with planned fixed mobility aids is primarily at free-flight terminal points or while changing direction. Padding or kick surfaces should be considered at these points.

b. Package Transport and Mobility Aid Use - Consider the packages that the crewmembers might be carrying. One or two hands may be required to negotiate and guide the package.

c. EVA Use in Emergency - IVA mobility aids may have to be used by space suited crewmembers under emergency conditions. The location should, therefore, account for bulky garments that reduce joint movement and clearance.

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5, EVA Mobility Aids and Translation, for additional information.)

d. Substitute Mobility Aids - Walls, ceilings, or any handy equipment item may be used as a mobility aid. Surfaces and equipment along translation paths should, therefore, be designed to accommodate this function.

8.9.2.2 Considerations for Location of IVA Personnel Restraints

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The following considerations should be observed when locating IVA personnel restraints:

a. Operator Stability - Locate restraints where it is critical that a workstation operator remain stable for task performance (i.e., view through an eyepiece, operation of a keyboard, repair a circuit, etc.).

b. Counteracting Forces - Locate restraints where task performance causes the body to move in reaction to the forces being exerted. For instance, a crewmember using a wrench should be restrained from rotating in an opposite direction to the applied torque.

c. Two Hand Task Performance - Some simple tasks can be easily performed with one hand while using the other hand for stability. More complex tasks, however, require coordination of both hands and somebody or foot restraint system may be required.

d. Restriction of Drift Into Undesirable Area - Not all restraints are necessary for keeping a crewmember at a station. Sometimes a restraint is necessary to keep the crewmember from drifting into another area. A relaxing or sleeping crewmember, for instance, should be restrained from drifting into a traffic, work, or hazardous area.

e. Location According to Crewmember Size - The restraint should properly position a crewmember at a station. The proper position is dependent on the crewmember size. The restraint should be located so that the smallest and the largest of the defined crewmember population range can perform the task. Restraint adjustment or multiple positions may be necessary.

f. Noninterference - The restraint should not interfere with other tasks. It may be necessary to use a portable restraint and remove it when a station is used for another purpose.

g. Typical Areas Requiring Restraints - Based on the above information, restraints should be considered for the following locations within the space module:

1. Body waste management facility.

2. Exercise area.

3. Sleeping area.

4. Clothes changing locations.

5. Trash handling locations.

6. Airlock.

7. Space suit don/doff area.

8. Housekeeping and cleanup centers.

9. Maintenance areas.

10. Galley and eating areas.

11. Workstations.

12. Space medical facility.

8.9.3 Mobility Aids and Restraints Design Requirements

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8.9.3.1 IVA Mobility Aid Integration Design Requirements

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The following are requirements for integration of fixed IVA mobility aids into the space module architecture:

a. Translation Path Locations - Mobility aids shall be located along translation paths as necessary for crewmembers to initiate translation movement, terminate translation movement, or change direction or speed.

b. Orientation Requirements - The orientation and location of mobility aids shall be such that approximate body positions normally assumed to perform a task can be attained upon reaching the crew station.

c. Noninterference - Mobility aids shall be located so as not to restrict or interfere with traffic flow or operations at crew stations.

d. Contingency Space Suited Operations - IVA mobility aids shall be sized and located as necessary for contingency space suited operations (i.e., EVA rescue or recovery).

8.9.3.2 IVA Restraint Integration Design Requirements

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The following are requirements for integration of fixed IVA restraints into the space module architecture:

a. Crew Stations - Restraints shall be provided at crew stations where it is important that body positions normally assumed to perform a task be maintained and that normal body movements are accommodated.

b. Areas Where High Force Application is Required - Restraints shall be provided where crewmembers are expected to exert forces that cause the body to move in reaction, thereby degrading task performance.

c. Space Medical Facility - Patient restraints shall be provided in the Space Medical Facility. Restraint location and type shall be adaptable depending on the type and extent of the injuries or incapacitation of the patient and shall permit access for the administration of medical treatment.

d. Undesirable Areas - Restraints shall be provided where necessary to keep a crewmember from drifting into undesirable areas such as a hazardous area, traffic area, or workstation.

e. Noninterference - Restraints shall be located so as not to restrict or interfere with crew operations.

8.9.4 Example of IVA Restraints, Architectural Integration Design Solutions

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The Skylab internal fixed mobility aid locations are shown in Figure 8.9.4-1.

Figure 8.9.4-1 Skylab Internal Mobility Aid Locations

Transparent Sketch of Skylab Internal Mobility Aid Locations

Reference: 1, p. 3-59; NASA-STD-3000 347

8.10 HATCHES AND DOORS

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8.10.1 Introduction

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This section discusses the design of IVA hatches and doors. Both hatch and door openings and the opening covers are discussed. Only full body access hatches and doors are discussed.skip references

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5, EVA Mobility and Translation, for information on EVA passageways.)

(Refer to Section 12.0, Maintainability, for information on partial body access openings, i.e., arms, hands and fingers.)

(Refer to Paragraphs 11.6, Handles and Grasp Areas, and 11.3, Drawers and Racks, for specific design requirements for hatch and door handles.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.8, Translation Paths, for additional information on design for translation within the space module.)end of references

8.10.2 Hatch and Door Design Considerations

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The following are considerations for the location and design of hatches and doors:

a. Use of the Hatch or Door - The following is a list of the types of hatches and doors and some of their specific design considerations:

1. Pressure Hatch - Although the pressure hatch must be able to withstand high-pressure loads, it must not be too massive or difficult to operate. Due to the criticality of the pressure hatch,

operating procedures and hardware must minimize the chance of unsafe operations. Normally, the pressure hatch opening size and controls must be designed to be used by a space suited crewmember. Reliability is enhanced if hatches open toward the higher pressure volume, thus making them essentially self- sealing.

2. Internal Doors - Internal doors may be necessary for visual privacy, reduction of light, reduction of noise, fire barriers, and restraint of loose equipment. The configuration will vary accordingly.

3. Emergency Hatches - Emergency hatches are used primarily for escape or rescue. A dedicated emergency hatch should not interfere with normal activities. In an emergency, however, hatch operation should be simple and quick. Where pressure loss is a possibility, emergency hatch openings must be sized for space suits.

b. Opening Size and Shape - The following considerations should be observed when selecting the hatch and door opening size and shape:

1. Body Orientation - Frequently used hatches and doors should not require body reorientation to pass through. In microgravity conditions, this means that the opening should allow passage of a crewmember in the neutral body posture.

2. User Size - The size of the hatch and door opening should accommodate the largest crewmember plus any equipment to be transported.

3. Space Suited Crewmembers - Generally, internal doors need only be used by IVA crewmembers; in some cases, however, it may be necessary to provide opening room for passage for a space suited crewmember.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size Design Requirements, for body size data.)

c. User Strength - The operating forces of the door opening system must be within the strength range of the weakest of the defined crewmember population.

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9, Strength, for specific data.)

d. Traffic Considerations - Internal doors and hatches are points of potential traffic congestion. The following considerations should be made to ease the traffic flow:

1. Do not place doors or hatches near a corner where a translation path junctures with another path and/or where a single path turns the corner. The doorway should be at least 1.5 m (5 ft) from the corner. See Figure 8.10.2-1 for illustration.

2. Door and hatch covers should not open into congested translation paths. Rather, they should open into the compartment.

3. Door and hatch openings should be sized for the traffic flow. To be efficient, a high use doorway may require an opening to accommodate more than one crewmember at the same time.

Figure 8.10.2-1 Place Door Openings Away From Traffic Congestion

Sketch of Traffic Congestion at doorways

Reference: 111, p. 303; NASA-STD-3000 214

8.10.3 Hatch and Door Design Requirements

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8.10.3.1 Location Design Requirements

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Hatches and doors shall meet the following location requirements:

a. Internal Door Placement - Enclosed crew stations shall have entrances/exits to permit unrestricted flow for all anticipated traffic. They shall be located so personnel who are entering or leaving will not interfere with surrounding operations or traffic flow.

b. Away From Hazards - In compartments with a single ingress/egress, the opening shall not be located near flammable, explosive, or otherwise hazardous substance such that the energy content, if released, will result in damage that prevents access through the entrance.

c. Emergency Passage - Capability should be provided to allow emergency exit and rescue entry into a compartment. This may require two or more entrances into a compartment and/or a pressure hatch.

8.10.3.2 Pressure Hatch Indicator/Visual Display Design Requirements

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Pressure hatch covers shall have the following visual displays and indicators:

a. Visual Inspection of Hatch Security - A means shall be provided on both sides of the pressure hatch for visual safety check to ensure that it has been secured properly.

b. Remote Status Display - Pressure differentials and hatch operational status displays shall be provided as necessary for safety at appropriate space module command and control center(s).

c. Pressure Difference Indicators - Pressure hatches shall have pressure difference indicators visible on both sides of the hatch.

d. Windows - All airlock hatches shall have windows for visual observation of all decompression operations with a minimum of blind spots inside the airlock.

(Refer to Paragraph 11.11.3, Window Design Requirements, for detailed window design specifications.)

e. Operating Instructions - All pressure hatches shall display operating procedures on both sides of the hatch.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.5.3.1.8, Operating Instruction Design Requirements.)

8.10.3.3 Opening and Closing Mechanisms Design Requirements

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The hatch and door opening and closing mechanisms shall meet the following design requirements:

a. Emergency Operation - Latching mechanisms shall provide for emergency operation in case of a latching system failure.

b. EVA Operation - All opening/closing mechanisms shall be operable by a pressure-suited crewmember.

c. Operation From Both Sides - Hatches shall be capable of being operated, locked, and unlocked from either side.

d. Interlock - Pressure hatches shall be prevented from unlatching prior to pressure equalization.

e. Single Crewmember Operation - Hatches shall be capable of being operated by one crewmember.

f. Parts Tethering - All safety pins or other detachable parts required for the opening/closing shall be tethered and able to be stowed.

g. Emergency Closing - Hatches and doors shall allow crewmembers to close covers with or against pressure differentials, for the worst case pressure differential anticipated.

h. Rapid Closing - Hatches used to isolate interior areas of the space module shall be designed to allow rapid closing.

8.10.3.4 Operating Forces Design Requirements

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Hatch and door cover operating forces shall meet the following requirements:

a. Emergency Operation - Forces for emergency manual backup operation or breakaway of jammed internal hatches and doors shall not exceed 445 Newtons (100 lbs).

b. Latch Operations - The force required to operate door and hatch latches shall not exceed the strength of the fifth percentile design population as defined in Paragraph 4.9.3.

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9.3, Strength - Design Requirements, for strength data.)

c. Open/Close Force - The opening and closing forces for internal hatches and doors shall not exceed 22 Newtons (5 lbf) assuming zero delta-pressure through the opening.

d. Restraints - Restraints shall be provided as necessary to counteract body movement when opening or closing the hatch.

8.10.3.5 Minimum Size Design Requirements

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The minimum size of personnel hatch and door openings shall accommodate passage of the largest replaceable module or the 95th percentile male crewmember (whichever is larger) intended to pass through the opening.

8.10.3.6 Door and Hatch Shape Design Requirements

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Doors and pressure-sealing hatches shall be shaped such that they can pass through the opening into which they are designed to fit/seal to allow for removal, maintenance, repair, relocation, etc.

The location and operation of crew interfaces (gauges, levers, valves, handles, etc.) for hatches in all pressurized elements shall be visually and functionally identical. This shall include the procedures and protocols for opening, securing, closing, statusing and performing maintenance.

8.10.3.7 Shape

{A}

The hatch should be shaped such that it can pass through the opening that it is designed to seal to allow for removal, maintenance, repair, relocation, etc.

8.10.4 Hatch and Door Design Solutions

{A}

The Shuttle hatch, with one flat side, is a good example of a hatch shape which will allow removal of the outward swinging hatch from within the craft.

8.11 WINDOWS INTEGRATION

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8.11.1 Introduction

{A}

This section covers the integration (i.e., the placement and location) of windows with the overall architecture of the space module.

Refer to Paragraph 11.11, Windows, for requirements and considerations for window detail design and construction.)

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.5.1, Window Workstations, for information on the design and interface of windows used with workstations.)

8.11.2 Windows Integration Design Considerations

{A}

8.11.2.1 Location of Windows Within Space Module Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations that should be observed when locating windows within the space module:

a. Functional Considerations - Figure 8.11.2.1-1 shows possible uses of the space module window and the effect of the use on the location of the window within the space module

b. Traffic - The windows should be located so that use of windows will not interfere with required traffic flow.

c. Light and Glare - The following are lighting and glare considerations for window location:

1. Glare on window - Bright interior illumination could reflect from the window surface and degrade visibility.

2. Dark adaptation for celestial viewing - Bright interior illumination may degrade dark adaptation required for celestial viewing.

3. Light sensitive activities - Exterior light through windows could degrade light sensitive activities such as sleeping, use of CRT displays, or tasks requiring dark adaptation.

4. Natural light and calcium loss - Calcium loss from bones in microgravity is a problem of major concern. Since vitamin D obtained from certain wavelengths of natural sunlight facilitates absorption of calcium by the gastrointestinal tract, it is postulated that provided by controlled crew exposure to appropriately designed and located windows.

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.3 Reduced Gravity Countermeasures, for additional information about microgravity effects.)

5. Destruction of bacteria with natural light - A window could be located so that the light could be used against the growth of pathogenic bacteria.

6. Use of natural light for illumination - A properly designed and located window can use natural sunlight as a supplementary source of internal space module illumination.

Figure 8.11.2.1-1 Functional Considerations for Location of Window Within a Module

Window functions Location considerations
Proximity operations
Coordination of docking and berthing of other modules Near module workstations with communications, control displays, video backup, etc. (refer to Paragraph 9.2.5.1, Window Workstation)
Monitor and support of EVA personnel Location to provide a clear, stereoscopic view of EVA operations
Teleoperation of EVA equipment
Earth/celestial observations
Discovery and documentation of unpredicted features and events. Near scientific workstations
Scientific research and experimentation. Away from high traffic volume (refer to Paragraph 8.7, Traffic Flow)
Support of crew morale
Offset claustrophobic effects of tightly confined, long-term isolation. Near recreational, socialization areas.
Provide recreational and awe-inspiring experiences. Near areas of boring, monotonous tasks (exercise, for instance).
Enable photography Near private quarters
Provide educational benefits Location to provide view of Earth (if possible) or other interesting celestial sight
Provide a psychological link to the home planet.
Afford natural illumination and day/night cycles.

Reference: 322, pp. 2,3; NASA-STD-3000 180

8.11.2.2 Window Configuration Design Considerations

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The following are considerations for the design of the window and the surrounding area:

a. Anthropometrics and Neutral Body Posture - The window must be placed on the line of sight of the user. The size range of the users must be considered. In microgravity conditions the neutral body posture must be accommodated.

(Refer to Section 3.0, Anthropometrics, for data on body dimensions, line of sight, and the neutral body posture.)

b. Total Visual Field - The total visual field out the window must be compatible with the task of the viewer. Calculate the total visual field using the following dimensions:

1. Window width.

2. Bezel thickness.

3. Distance of the viewer from the window.

4. Lateral offset.

These dimensions are illustrated in Figure 8.11.2.2-1 along with the factors that affect them.

c. Window Shape - In proximity operations, cues to establish viewer or target orientation are important. A square or rectangular window with flat frame edges can provide the viewer with orientation cues. Round windows do not provide these cues.

d. Restraints - Body restraints compatible with the viewing task must be provided for microgravity conditions. The restraints should allow the full size range of users to position themselves for viewing.

e. Protection of the Window Surface - In a microgravity environment, crewmembers are able to use all exposed surfaces for stabilization and mobility. Care should be taken in designing and locating the window to ensure that it is not damaged by the crew during translation.

f. Space Module Windows - Windows located in the habitation module should be used primarily for crew recreation and observation during off-duty periods.

Figure 8.11.2.2-1 Calculation of Visual Angle From Window

Figure of Visual Angle From Window

Calculation of Visual Angle From Window
Dimension Factors affecting dimension
Bezel thickness
Window width
Window hardware design
Set-back distance Body dimensions of viewer
Size of workstation console or other equipment around window
Lateral offset Number of viewers
Obstructions around window area
Viewing requirements of task (i.e., target acquisition time)

Reference: 323, p. 7; NASA-STD-3000 181

8.11.3 Window Integration Design Requirements

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The following are requirements for the architectural integration and design of windows:

a. Required Windows - Properly located and sized windows shall be provided for the following functions:

1. Off duty recreational viewing by the crewmembers.

2. As necessary for interface with EVA activities.

3. To support proximity operations.

4. To support external inspection of adjacent modules, structures, and/or other spacecraft.

5. As necessary for scientific celestial or Earth observations.

6. For observation of decompression through airlock and pressure hatch covers. Windows shall be located and configured with minimum blind areas inside the decompression area. Windows shall allow a 90o field of view for an eye reference point located along a normal to the window opening. This normal passes through the geometric center of the opening. This reference point shall be located half the window opening dimension from the inner pane.

b. Adequate Space Around Windows - The architectural arrangement of equipment near the windows shall allow adequate space for the performance of designated operational, maintenance, and recreational tasks by suitably clothed crewmembers representing the significant body dimensions applicable to access clearance.

c. Restraints - Restraints shall be provided in microgravity conditions when necessary for window task performance.

d. Compatibility With Adjacent Area

1. Lighting - Provisions shall be made to preclude reductions in visual capability of all viewers using a window(s) due to both internal and external light sources.

2. Glare - Reflected glare or ghost imaging shall not degrade the visual performance of the viewer or surrounding crew activities.

3. Internal light sources shall be positioned so as to preclude reductions in viewer visual capability while using windows.

e. Window Attachments - The following accommodations shall be provided so as to impose minimal interference with nominal crew window activities:

1. Mounting/Pointing/Aligning Fixtures that are:

(a) temporary

(b) unobtrusive (visually as well as physically)

(c) easy to install and use

(d) easy to remove during periods of nonuse

2. Interfaces with space module power, communication (including voice), data, and lighting systems in the proximity.

8.12 INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECOR

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8.12.1 Introduction

{A}

This section provides interior design and decor considerations and requirements that relate to the selection of colors, textures, lighting, materials, furnishings, and decorative accessories that have impact on the aesthetic quality of space module habitability, especially for long duration missions.

8.12.2 Interior Design and Decor Design Considerations

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8.12.2.1 General Interior Decor Design Considerations

{A}

The following are general considerations for the design of the interior decor:

a. Simplicity - Interior design (decor) should be simple, i.e., too many colors, complicated visual patterns, large areas of extremely saturated colors or too many fabric variations may result in visual or sensual oversaturation. Such treatment becomes an annoyance to most observers, especially over long periods of exposure.

b. Variety - Extreme simplicity can be carried too far. Drab, singular color or completely neutral (e.g., all gray) color schemes and smooth, untextured surfaces are monotonous and lead to boredom and eventual irritation with the bland quality of the visual environment. The best interior design schemes are a balance of variety and simplicity.

c. Personalization - The ability of a crewmember to personalize certain portions of her or his environment is often a morale booster. This option should be limited to an individual's personal quarters. A simple feature could be a simple bulletin board on which the crewmember could display personal photos or other memorabilia.

d. Maintenance of Decor - Use of a wide variety of colors, textures, materials, and accessories can exaggerate housekeeping, repair, and replacement problems.

8.12.2.2 Decorative Technique Design Considerations

{A}

Decorative techniques to be considered are as follows:

a. Colored Surfaces - A variety of color schemes may be developed using wall coverings, paint, or treated metal surfaces. The following are considerations to be observed when using color:

1. Color variety - The use of different schemes for different compartments within the habitat is an effective way to achieve variety. Within each compartment, the general use of a small variety of color (no more than 4 to 5) is preferred over a single color. Variety can also be obtained by using slightly different tints and shades of the basic surfaces, another for equipment racks, and another for control panels.

2. Reflectance - Color affects the amount of light reflected from a surface. Diffused reflectance is desirable, especially at workstations. High reflectance can cause annoying glare.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13, Lighting, for surface reflectance requirements and considerations.)

3. Color by light source - Providing surface color by light sources for the purpose of interior aesthetics should be avoided.

4. Effects on color by common lamps - The two matrices in Figure 8.12.2.2-1 give a general description of the effects that common fluorescent, mercury, and filament luminaries have on colored surfaces. Both the lighting level and the color of the light affect the appearance of colored surfaces. Filament lamps and warm fluorescent lamps, which are deficient in blue, emphasize the redness of a surface color and thus accent warm hues.

5. Preferred colors - Figure 8.12.2.2-2 provides an aid for the selection of preferred colors for different crew areas. Selected colors should be matched with those in Reference 290.

6. Location and orientation coding - In some cases the use of color may be useful in helping the crewmember to more quickly identify the room type or their orientation in the rooms. Lighter colors may be used as a cue to indicate designed for a local vertical.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.5, Location Coding, for additional information.)

b. Texture - Variety on wall or other surfaces can be obtained through use of textured wall coverings. Texture adds another dimension of variety to the decor. The following are considerations to be observed when using texture:

1. Aesthetics - Some fine, regular patterning of coverings is acceptable. Gross irregular patterns are generally not pleasing and should be avoided.

2. Noise control - Rough textures reduce noise levels better than smooth textures.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.4, Acoustics, for additional information on the control of noise.)

3. Glare reduction - Rough textures diffusely scatter incident light and may be useful in glare reduction.

4. Location coding - Changes in texture may be used to delineate a subdivision of the interior space. This can be used to increase perceived privacy and territorially.

5. Cleaning - Smooth and plain surfaces are easy to clean; however, a small amount of dirt can make them appear unattractive.

c. Decorative Accessories - Decorative accessories should be considered as long as they are consistent with functional requirements and environmental constraints. Decorative accessories include curtains, simulated woodgrain work surfaces, and simulated leather or fabric covers for certain furnishings.

d. Flexibility - Ease of changing decor should be considered. Decor might be changed during long missions, as crews are replaced during normal rotation, or when the space module needs to be refurbished. Plans for such change or rehabilitation should be included in the initial design so that changes can be accomplished with minimum effort, time, cost, and interference with ongoing operations. As an example, techniques for quick removal and replacement of wall and ceiling structural coverings should be considered to vary color schemes as well as replace worn or damaged coverings.

e. Lighting - Variation in lighting quantity, direction, brightness, and predominant wavelength may be utilized to influence perceived spaciousness and create visual variety.

Figure 8.12.2.2-1 Color Effects of Various Lamps

Color Effects of White Fluorescent Lamps
Lamp appearance: Cool White Deluxe cool white Warm white Deluxe warm white

Effect on neutral surfaces

White

White

Yellowish white

Yellowish white

Effect on "atmosphere"

Neutral to moderately cool

Neutral to moderately cool

Warm

Warm

Colors strengthened

Orange, yellow, blue

All nearly equal

Orange yellow

Red, orange, yellow, green

Colors grayed

Red

None appreciably

Red, green, blue

Blue

Remarks

Blends with natural daylight

Best over- all color rendition: simulates natural daylight

Blends with incandescent light

Excellent color rendition; simulates incandescent light

Color Effects of White Fluorescent Lamps (continued)
Lamp appearance: Daylight White Soft white-natural

Effect on neutral surfaces

Bluish white

Pale yellowish white

Pinkish white

Effect on "atmosphere"

Very cool

Moderately warm

Warm, pinkish

Colors strengthened

Green blue

Orange, yellow

Red, orange

Colors grayed

Red, orange

Red, green, blue

Green, blue

Remarks

Usually replaceable with cool white

Usually replaceable with cool white or warm white

Usually replaceable with deluxe cool white or deluxe warm white

Color Effects of Mercury and Filament Lamps
Lamp appearance Mercury White mercury Color- improved mercury Deluxe white mercury Filament
Effect on neutral surfaces

Greenish blue white

Greenish white

Yellowish white

White

Yellowish white

Effect on "atmosphere"

Very cool, greenish

Moderately cool, greenish

Warm, yellowish

Moderately cool

Warm

Colors strengthened

Yellow, green, blue

Yellow, green, blue

Yellow, green

Orange, yellow, blue

Red, orange, yellow

Colors grayed

Red, orange

Red, orange

Blue

Green

Blue

Remarks

Poor overall color rendering

Color rendering often acceptable, but not equal to any white fluorescent

Color rendering good; compares favorably with deluxe cool white fluorescent

Excellent color rendering; tends to yellow when dim

Reference: 111, pp. 834, 835; NASA-STD-3000 259

 

Figure 8.12.2.2-2 Color Recommendations

figure of Color Recommendations

Note: The use of saturated (high chroma) or dark (low value) colors shall be restricted to small amounts.

Reference: 111, pp. 834-835; NASA-STD-3000 182

8.12.2.3 Psychological Effects Design Considerations

{A}

There are several psychological effects of color and light that should be considered in space module habitat design.

a. Compartment Spaciousness - Color can effect perceived spaciousness. The primary qualities of color that effect spaciousness are brightness (lightness) and saturation. There are small receding and advancing effects due to hues, but these effects are secondary to brightness and saturation. The following color scheme will help to maximize spaciousness:

1. Keep boundary surfaces at high brightness and low saturation.

2. Color interior partitions at medium brightness and medium saturation.

3. Accent elements at either medium or low brightness and high saturation.

4. Color protruding elements the same as the boundary surfaces.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6, Envelope Geometry for Crew Functions, for additional information on spaciousness.)

b. Perceived Temperature - Some investigators claim that perceived temperature can be influenced by color and texture. Hue is by far the most important dimension of the color for this effect. Perceived temperature can also be strongly enhanced by texture. The reported effects of color and texture on perceived temperature are listed below:

1. Warmth - Warm colors (red, yellow, pink, brown, etc.) and highly textured surfaces.

2. Coolness - Cool colors (green, violet, blue, etc.) and polished surfaces.

c. Psychological Response to Light - The psychological response to light is a combined function of its amount, directionability, and power spectrum, and their suitability for different types of activities. Good lighting design incorporates more than a simple concern for illumination of a visual task.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13, for task lighting requirements.)

d. Stress Reduction - Certain interior decor features such as pictures or panel coverings with natural/naturalistic themes may aid in stress reduction for occupants.

8.12.2.4 Materials Design Considerations

{A}

Durability, nonflammability, and safety are all considerations for the selection of materials for interior decor. The materials should not impart chemical, mechanical (abrasive surfaces, sharp corners, edges, etc.), or any other hazard to the crew.

8.12.3 Interior Design and Decor Design Requirements

{A}

The following are requirements for the interior design and decor of the space module:

8.12.3.1 Aesthetic and Psychological Requirements

{A}

The aesthetic and psychological response of the crew shall be a consideration in the selection of the space module interior design and decor.

8.12.3.2 Decor Flexibility

{A}

The interior decor shall be capable of being changed with a minimum of resource expenditure.

8.12.3.3 Color Selection

{A}

The following are requirements for the use of color in the space module interior:

1. Use of dark or saturated colors - The use of dark (low brightness) or saturated colors shall be restricted to small areas, (e.g., handrails, display frames, etc.).

2. Color variety - An enclosed space that is frequently occupied shall not be a uniform color throughout.

3. Colors in eating and grooming areas - Color schemes for eating and grooming areas shall consist of colors that enhance the appearance of food and a person's skin color.

8.12.3.4 Decor Cleaning and Maintenance

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All surfaces shall be easily cleaned and maintained.

8.12.3.5 Decor Durability

{A}

Decor materials shall be resistant to abrasion, scratching, and the absorption of undesirable contaminants, spilled chemicals, grease, body excretions, fungi, moisture, direct sunlight, ozone, airborne particles, cleaning and decontamination agents.

8.12.3.6 Safety

{A}

The use of hazardous materials shall be minimized; those used shall meet the applicable requirements specified in NHIB 8060.1B, Flammability, Odor and Offgassing Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials Used in Environments That Support Combustion (J8400003). Materials and components subject to insidious degradation in the space module ionizing environment shall not be used where that degradation can cause or contribute to any crew hazards.

(Refer to Section 6.0, Crew Safety, for detailed safety requirements.)

In the event of fire, the interior walls and secondary structures within space module shall be self-extinguishing.

8.13 LIGHTING

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8.13.1 Introduction

{A}

This section discusses and defines the overall lighting requirements for the interior of the space module.

(Refer to Paragraphs 14.4.2.4, EVA Workstation Lighting Design Considerations, and Paragraph 14.4.3.3, EVA Workstation Lighting Design Requirements, for EVA lighting considerations and requirements.)

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.2.2.1, Workstation Illumination Design Requirements, for workstation control panels and displays lighting requirements.)

(Refer to Paragraph 4.2, Vision, for a discussion of the human eye and its response to light.)

8.13.2 Lighting Design Considerations

{A}

Space module lighting systems should be designed to optimize viewing conditions for all mission activities. This will vary from very gross visual requirement (such as seeing to move about) to very critical visual tasks that require discrimination of color codes, seeing fine detail an instruments, or detection of dim objects or planetary detail at night. The key factors to consider are:

a. Color of light source.

b. Intensity of light.

c. Placement of light sources.

d. Distribution of light.

e. Characteristics of task materials.

f. Observer's dark/light adaptation level requirements.

g. Psychological factors.

8.13.2.1 Color of Light Source Design Considerations

{A}

White light sources should be used for most nominal work and living space areas because this makes people and things look natural and allows use of special surface color codes to be recognized. Designers should strive to utilize interior lighting that approximates the full spectral range of sunlight.

Red lighting should be considered where it is necessary for a crewmember to remain dark adapted. An example would be when the crewmember has to look out of a window (at night), but also read instruments inside the space module.

8.13.2.2 Lighting Intensity Design Considerations

{A}

Light level or intensity should be sufficient to allow the crewmembers to perform their visual tasks efficiently, but not so high as to create glare sources. Generally, the more detailed or long duration the task, the higher the illumination should be. Each lighting system should be dimmable to allow crewmembers to optimize their viewing conditions.

8.13.2.3 Placement of Sources Design Considerations

{A}

Light sources should be placed according to what they are intended to illuminate, i.e., surfaces, objects, people, instruments, documents or signs. They should not shine in crewmember's eyes, or cause serious reflections that could degrade visual task performance. Supplemental lighting should be provided for personnel performing specialized visual tasks in areas where fixed illumination is less than the minimum required.

8.13.2.4 Light Distribution Design Considerations

{A}

As a general rule, illumination in work and living spaces should eliminate glare and shadows that interfere with prescribed tasks. The following are three important factors of light distribution and some of the exceptions to this general rule:

a. Ambient Light - Ambient light for general, gross illumination should be distributed so as to enhance the appearance (e.g., spaciousness) and functional performance of an interior volume.

b. Supplemental Light - Supplemental light may be required for local illumination of a special task.

c. Self Illuminated Displays - Self-lit or luminous displays such as a CRT may require a reduction of illumination.

The operator should be provided with a control over each type of light where practical.

8.13.2.5 Characteristics of Task Materials Design Considerations

{A}

Different material and surfaces react differently to various lighting techniques. Slick, glossy materials, instrument covers, windows and painted surfaces tend to create reflection and glare problems. Reduction of such problems requires consideration of the type and positioning of light sources, control of illumination level, and possible use of anti-reflection coatings. Whenever possible avoid glossy, highly-polished surfaces. Figure 8.13.2.5-1 gives typical reflectance values for various surfaces.

Figure 8.13.2.5-1 Typical Work Surface Reflectance Values

figure of Typical Work Surface Reflectance Values

Reference: 15, p. 3-23; NASA-STD-3000 223

8.13.2.6 Observer Light/Dark Adaptation Design Considerations

{A}

Task/lighting conditions should be planned and executed to preclude or minimize the need for a crewmember to suddenly shift from a very bright to very dark environment, or vice-versa.

8.13.2.7 Psychological Factors Design Considerations

{A}

Although power constraints limit the ability to provide high levels throughout the space module, higher ambient light levels do have a distinctly beneficial effect on morale. Reasonably high level ambient illumination should be considered for such activities as food preparation and eating, recreation, and personal hygiene.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.12.2, Interior Design and Decor Design Considerations, for additional information on the psychological effects of lighting.)

8.13.3 Lighting Design Requirements

{A}

8.13.3.1 Illumination Level Design Requirements

{A}

8.13.3.1.1 General Interior Illumination Levels Design Requirements

{A}

The general illumination of a space module shall be a minimum of 108 lux (10 foot-candles) of white light.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.2.2.1, Workstation Illumination Design Requirements, for specific workstation task lighting requirements.)

(Refer to Paragraph 14.4.3.3, EVA Workstation Lighting Design Requirements, for EVA lighting requirements.)

8.13.3.1.2 Illumination For Specific Tasks Design Requirements

{A}

The lighting level shall be measured on the primary work surfaces. Measurement shall be taken at 80% of maximum lumen output.

Specific IVA task lighting requirements are defined in Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1 which also defines illumination levels for workstations. EVA lighting requirements are in Paragraph 14.4.3.3, EVA Workstation Lighting Design Requirements.

Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1 Space Vehicle Illumination Levels

Area or Task Lux (Ft. C. )

GENERAL

108

(10)

PASSAGEWAYS

54

(5)

Hatches

108

(10)

Handles

108

(10)

Ladders

108

(10)

STOWAGE AREAS

108

(10)

WARDROOM

215

(20)

Reading

538

(50)

Recreation

323

(30)

GALLEY

215

(20)

Dining

269

(25)

Food Preparation

323

(30)

PERSONAL HYGIENE

108

(10)

Grooming

269

(25)

Waste Management

164

(15)

Shower

269

(25)

CREW QUARTERS

108

(10)

Reading

323

(30)

Sleep

54

(5)

HEALTH MAINTENANCE

215

(20)

First Aid

269

(25)

Surgical

1076

(100)

I. V. Treatment

807

(75)

Exercise

538

(50)

Hyperbaric clinical lab

538

(50)

Imaging televideo

538

(50)

WORKSTATION

323

(30)

Maintenance

269

(25)

Controls

215

(20)

Assembly

323

(30)

Transcribing

538

(50)

Tabulating

538

(50)

Repair

323

(30)

Panels (Positive)

215

(20)

Panels (Negative)

54

(5)

Reading

548

(50)

NIGHT LIGHTING

21

(2)

EMERGENCY LIGHTING

32

(3)

Note: Levels are measured at the task or 760 mm. (30 in.) above floor. All level are minimums.

Reference: 351 with updates NASA-STD-3000 291, Rev. A

8.13.3.1.3 Illumination Levels of Sleeping Areas Design Requirements

{A}

The following requirements apply to the illumination of sleeping areas:

a. The lighting level shall be adjustable from off to the maximum for sleeping areas.

b. Minimum lighting of 32 Lux (3 fc), or other means of visual orientation shall be provided to permit emergency egress from sleeping areas.

8.13.3.1.4 Illumination Levels for Dark Adaptation Design Requirements

{A}

If maximum dark adaptation is required, red light or low level white lighting [CIE color coordinates for x and y equals 0.330 ± 0.030 (1932)] is acceptable . All trans-illuminated displays and controls shall be visible when all other lighting is turned off.

When dark adaptation is required for performance of tasks, the following measures shall be taken:

a. Low Level Lighting - Low level lighting shall be provided for task performance which minimizes loss of dark adaptation.

b. Protection From Stray Light - Areas requiring low level illumination shall be protected from external light sources.

1. All external windows shall be provided with protective light shields (shades, curtains, etc.)

2. All doorways shall be light-proof when closed.

8.13.3.2 Light Distribution Design Requirements

{A}

8.13.3.2.1 Glare From Light Sources Design Requirements

{A}

Glare is the sensation produced by any luminance within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eye is adjusted to cause eye fatigue, discomfort, annoyance, or interference with visual performance and visibility.

The following measures shall be taken where possible to avoid glare from artificial light sources.

a. Light Sources in Front or to the Side of Operators - Locate light sources so that they do not shine directly at the operator. This includes the range within 60 o to any side of the center of the visual field.

b. Source Brightness and Quantity - Use more relatively dim light sources, rather than a few very bright ones.

c. Glare Protection - Use polarized light, shields, hoods, lens, diffusers, and/or visors to reduce the glare.

d. Indirect Lighting - Indirect lighting systems shall be used for providing uniform, glare-free general illumination.

e. Luminance Ratio - The luminance ratio for the luminaries shall not exceed 5:1 maximum to the average over the viewing area (average luminance is six readings on the luminance area).

8.13.3.2.2 Reflected Glare Design Requirements

{A}

a. Luminance of specular reflectance from the task background shall not be greater than 3 times the average luminance of the immediate background.

b. Luminance of specular reflectance from a remote task shall not be greater than 10 times the average luminance from the remote background.

c. Surface Reflection - Work surface reflection shall be diffused and shall not exceed 20 percent specularity.

d. Angle of Incidence - Arrange direct light sources so their angle of incidence to the visual work area is not the same as the operator's viewing angle.

c. Polished Surfaces - Avoid placement of smooth, highly polished surfaces within 60° of normal to the operator's visual field.

d. Light Source Behind Operator - Do not place bright light sources behind operators so that eyeglasses or display faces can reflect glare into the operator's eyes.

8.13.3.2.3 Brightness Ratio Design Requirements

{A}

a. Wall surface average luminance shall be within 50-80% of ceiling surface average luminance.

b. The maximum and minimum luminance ratio for any individual surface shall not exceed 10:1.

c. The brightness ratios between the lightest and darkest areas and/or between task area and surroundings shall be no greater than specified in Figure 8.13.3.2.3-1.

Figure 8.13.3.2.3-1 Required Brightness Ratios

Comparison Environmental classification a

A

B

C

Between lighter surfaces and darker surfaces within the task

5 to 1

5 to 1

5 to 1

Between tasks and adjacent darker surroundings

3 to 1

3 to 1

5 to 1

Between tasks and adjacent lighter surroundings

1 to 3

1 to 3

1 to 5

Between tasks and more remote darker surfaces

10 to 1

20 to 1

b

Between tasks and more remote lighter surfaces

1 to 10

1 to 20

b

Between luminaires and adjacent surfaces

20 to 1

b

b

Between the immediate work area and the rest of the environment

40 to 1

b

b

Notes:

a A - Interior areas where reflectances of entire space can be controlled for optimum visual conditions.

B - Areas where reflectances of immediate work area can be controlled, but there is only limited control over remote surroundings.

C - Areas (indoor and outdoor) where it is completely impractical to control reflectances and difficult to alter environmental conditions.

b Brightness-ratio control not practical.

Reference: 15, page 3-21; NASA-STD-3000 224

8.13.3.3 Light Color Design Requirements

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Artificial light shall meet the following color requirements:

a. White Light - Work areas of Space Station Freedom shall be illuminated with white light. Color temperature shall be 5000oK or greater for fluorescent lighting and greater than 3800oK for incandescent lighting.

b. Color Temperature Variation - Light sources shall have a correlated color temperature within the visual field of 300oK when operated at maximum power.

c. Color Rendition - Unless otherwise specified the minimum CIE general color rendering index (Ra) of any light source shall be 90 or better, with no special index (Ri) of any one test color sample less than 70.

See Paragraph 9.5.3.2 i for color coding information relative to illuminated displays.

8.13.3.4 Lighting Fixtures and Controls Design Requirements

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The following design requirements apply to lighting fixtures and their controls:

a. Emergency Lights - An independent, self-energizing illumination system shall be provided that will be automatically activated in the event of a major primary power failure or main lighting circuit malfunction resulting in circuit breaker interruption. Emergency illumination levels shall be per Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1.

b. Controls - Lighting controls shall meet the following requirements:

1. Required controls - Each light fixture shall have its own control. In addition centralized lighting control shall be provided for each compartment and translation path.

a) Location - Lighting controls shall be provided at entrances and exits of habitable areas.

b) Sleeping - Sleeping area light controls shall be within the reach of a crewmember when in the sleep restraint.

c) Controls - Controls for artificial illumination at the workstation shall be located within the reach envelope for the operator at the display/control panel or workstation that is affected.

2. Control identification - Lighting controls shall be illuminated in areas that are frequently darkened.

3. Variability - Dimmer controls shall be provided (either discrete or continuous) when required for mission requirements.

c. Flicker - Light sources shall not have a perceptible flicker.

d. Fixture Protection - The following protective measures shall be incorporated into lighting fixtures:

1. Protection from crew - Light sources shall be protected from damage by crew activity.

2. Hot surfaces - Provide protective covers on lighting fixtures whose surface temperature exceeds the maximum allowable temperatures given in Paragraph 6.5.3 b.

3. Bulb or Lens Breakage - Provisions shall be incorporated into all light fixtures to contain all glass fragments in the case of bulb or lens breakage.

4. Replacement of Bulbs - Provisions shall be incorporated into all light fixtures to allow for replacement of bulbs or luminaries as appropriate without tools and without imposing any hazard to the crew.

(Refer to Section 6.5, Temperature, for additional requirements pertaining to hot surfaces.)

e. Portable Lights - Portable lights shall be provided as necessary for illumination of otherwise inaccessible areas or as supplemental lighting for tasks such as photography.

8.13.3.5 Medical Lighting Requirements

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a. Habitation Module and Hyperbaric Chamber Ambient Light Requirements:

1. The light intensity shall be as specified in Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1.

2. The minimum (contingency) illuminate needed for patient treatment is 500 lux (46 ft. cd.).

3. The light source shall have a color Temperature of 5000°K. If filament lamps are used for light sources, color temperature shall be 4200° Kelvin or greater.

4. Color temperature match and uniformity shall be in accordance with paragraphs 8.13.3.3 b and 8.13.3.3 c.

b. Surgical Lighting:

1. The surgical light will double as a dental light.

2. Requirements of 8.13.3.5 a.3 and 8.13.3.5 a.4 also apply for surgical light.

3. The maximum illuminate to support surgical procedures shall be 4000 lux maximum (872 ft. cd.) to the center of a surface area of 500 square centimeters (77.5 in2) located 147 cm (5 ft.) from the work area.

4. The illuminate may taper from the center of the pattern to the edge no more than 20% of the maximum illuminate.

5. The luminaries must be directable through a complete hemisphere.

6. The luminaries must be focusable from a pattern diameter of 45 cm (18.5 in) down to 5 cm (2 in).

7. Shadows in the surgical field shall be minimized by luminaries design.

8. Radiant energy in the spectral region of 800 to 1000 nm shall be minimized.

c. Clinical Laboratory Workstation Lighting - The minimum illuminate at the workstation surface shall be as specified in Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1.

d. Imaging Lighting:

1. Requirements 8.13.3.5 a.3 and 8.13.3.5 a.4 also apply to imaging lighting.

2. The minimum illuminate to provide adequate lighting for televideo systems is given in Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1.

8.13.3.6 Workstation Illumination Design Requirements

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a. Illumination - Workstation illumination shall be determined by the tasks to be accomplished. Illumination requirements are given in Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1.

b. Adjustable Illumination - Workstation illumination shall be fully adjustable down at OFF.

c. Supplementary Lighting - Portable lighting shall be available for use when additional lighting is required at a workstation.

d. Light Distribution - Illumination shall uniformly cover the entire work/display area. The minimum ratio for differences in illumination within a work area shall meet the following specifications.

1. Primary viewing areas (30 to 60 degree visual angle about primary lines of sight) - Maintain a 3:1 ratio.

2. Adjacent viewing areas (30 to 60 degree band surrounding primary viewing areas) - Maintain a 5:1 ratio.

3. Workstation area outside adjacent viewing areas - Maintain a 10:1 ratio.

e. Shadows - Placement for lighting sources shall be such that shadows are not created on working surfaces or information displays by normal positioning of crewmembers or equipment.

f. Reflections - Lighting sources shall be designed and located to avoid creating reflections or glare from working and display surfaces, as viewed from any working position that might interfere with task performance.

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