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MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS VOLUME 1 VOLUME 2 SEARCH CONTACT US

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MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
SECTION 5
SECTION 6
SECTION 7
SECTION 8
SECTION 9
SECTION 10
SECTION 11
SECTION 12
SECTION 13
SECTION 14
MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS Print this page Click to print the page

Volume I, Section 10

10 ACTIVITY CENTERS

{A} For a description of the notations, see Acceleration Regimes.

This section contains the following topics:Skip Section listing 

10.1    Introduction  
10.2    Personal Hygiene  
10.3    Body Waste Management Facilities  
10.4    Crew Quarters  
10.5    Galley and Wardroom  
10.6    Meeting Facility  
10.7    Recreation Facility  
10.8    Microgravity Countermeasure Facility  
10.9    Space Medical Facility  
10.10  Laundry Facility  
10.11  Trash Management Facility  
10.12  Stowage Facility

See the video clips associated with this section.

10.1 INTRODUCTION

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The following section discusses the design and layout requirements for activity centers or off-duty crew stations for the Space Station. The on-duty crew stations, or workstations, which are defined as areas and/or associated equipment within a module dedicated to a specific on-duty crew activity, are covered in Section 9.0. The activity centers covered in this section include:

a. Personal hygiene facility.

b. Body waste management facility.

c. Crew quarters.

d. Galley and wardroom.

e. Meeting facility.

f. Recreation facilities.

g. Reduced gravity countermeasures.

h. Space medical facility.

i. Laundry facility.

j. Trash management facility.

k. Storage.

Many of these activity centers support crew health maintenance. The functional requirements for crew health maintenance are covered in Section 7.0, Health Management.

10.2 PERSONAL HYGIENE

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10.2.1 Introduction

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This section deals with the facilities required for personal hygiene. Personal hygiene includes:

a. Body washing (whole or partial).

b. Oral hygiene.

c. Hair cutting.

d. Grooming.

e. Shaving.

The section deals with the personal hygiene facility requirements only.

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.5, Personal Hygiene, for information on personal hygiene and health care procedures.)

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.5.3.6, Personal Hygiene Water Requirements, for information on water requirements for personal hygiene.)

(Refer to Paragraph 10.3, Body Waste Management Facilities, for information on facilities for handling body waste (urine, feces, menses, water, and vomitus).

10.2.2 Personal Hygiene Design Considerations

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The following are considerations to be made in the design of a personal hygiene facility:

a. Psychological Effects - Good grooming can enhance self image, improve morale, and increase the productivity of the crewmember. Adequate and comfortable bathing and body waste management facilities have been high on the list of priorities of participants in various space missions. Some modification of personal hygiene practices and procedures may be necessary due to equipment design limitations and water supply restrictions. Too great a modification, however, could impact negatively on crew self image and productivity. It would be unwise to expect optimum performance unless optimum conditions are provided.

b. Odor - Objectionable body odors can rapidly build without adequate personal hygiene facilities. This is a predictable source of interpersonal conflict.

c. Ease and Comfort of Use - Experiences with the Skylab shower design has shown that personal hygiene facilities will be less frequently used if they are awkward, uncomfortable, or take an inordinate amount of time to use.

d. Privacy - It is desirable to have privacy for crewmembers for whole body and partial body cleaning (including donning and doffing of clothing).

e. Feedback - Unfamiliar and inadequate facilities and environment can result in crewmembers falling into patterns of substandard hygiene. The results are likely to be reduced productivity and interpersonal conflict. Provision of full length mirrors or other means of feedback can help to maintain personal image and hygiene habits.

f. Mission Duration - Shorter missions generally require less extensive personal hygiene facilities. Each of the facility design requirement paragraphs provide guidelines for determining facility requirements based on mission duration.

g. Microgravity Considerations:

1. Cleanup - In microgravity, water and debris, such as hair, do not fall to a fixed surface (such as the floor) as they do on Earth. Water and debris float. Water cannot be simply drained away and hair cannot be swept up. Collection of water and debris become both an engineering problem and an operational problem for the crewmember. Functions that require relatively little time on Earth, such as a shower, can require much more time and be less relaxing because of the cleanup requirements due to microgravity. This can impact negatively both on mission schedule and personal motivation to use the facilities. Designs should minimize the time and discomfort penalties resulting from microgravity.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.2, Housekeeping, for additional microgravity considerations.)

2. Restraints - Restraints should be provided so that the crewmember does not compromise the personal hygiene operations by having to stabilize him or herself. These restraints should be compatible with the personal hygiene operation. For example, foot restraints in a whole body wash facility should not be damaged when exposed to water.

h. Skin Infections - In Skylab, there were skin infections due to microbial buildup and cross contamination between crewmembers.

10.2.3 Personal Hygiene Design Requirements

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The following requirements shall apply to all Personal Hygiene Facilities.

a. Easily cleaned, sanitized, and maintained.

b. One facility shall be supplied for every four crewmembers.

10.2.3.1 Partial Body Cleansing Design Requirements

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Partial body cleaning facility requirements are listed below:

a. Necessity for Facility - Partial body cleaning facilities shall be provided on all missions that exceed 1 day. On missions of 30 days or more, one facility shall be provided for every four crewmembers. A partial body washing facility shall be provided to accomplish washing of selected body areas for the following functions as required:

1. Post-urination/defecation.

2. Post-exercise.

3. During medical/health maintenance.

4. Pre- and post experimentation or other work requiring specialized washing.

5. Pre- and post meals.

6. Accidental exposure to toxic substances.

b. Design Requirements - All partial washing equipment using water shall have the following design characteristics:

1. Method to allow application of water to the hands and face.

2. Method to remove excess water from the body and facility, and cleansing aids.

3. Means to control water temperature.

4. Means to control water flow/usage.

5. Means to prevent water from escaping into the module environment.

6. Compatibility with the use of soap, shampoo, and antiseptic solutions, and accommodation of hair and other similar substances which might commonly find their way into such an area.

(Refer to Figure 10.3.2-1 for rate of body waste generation.)

7. Means to prevent cross contamination among crewmembers.

8. Means for final drying of body part.

9. Appropriate body and equipment (e.g., towels) restraints for reduced gravity conditions.

10. A means to personally code crew hygiene items.

c. Cleansing Agents - Refer to Paragraph 10.2.3.2.d.

10.2.3.2 Whole Body Cleansing Design Requirements

{A}

Whole body cleansing facility requirements are listed below:

a. Necessity for Facility - A whole body cleansing facility shall be provided for all long duration missions.

b. Equipment Design - Whole-body cleaning equipment with the following design characteristics shall be provided:

1. Method to apply water directly to the body.

2. Method to remove excess water from the body and facility.

3. Means to control water temperature.

4. Means to control water flow/usage.

5. Means to prevent water from escaping into the module environment.

6. Compatibility with the use of soap, shampoo, and antiseptic solutions, and accommodation of hair and other similar substances that might commonly find their way into such an area.

(Refer to Figure 10.3.2-1 for rate of body waste generation.)

7. Means to prevent cross-contamination among crewmembers.

8. A means for final body drying after whole body cleaning.

9. Appropriate body and equipment (e.g., towels) restraints for reduced gravity conditions.

10. A means to personally code crew hygiene items.

11. Air temperature and flow in the whole body cleansing facility must be adjustable by the user from within the facility.

c. Privacy - Privacy shall be provided for whole body cleaning.

d. Cleansing Agents - Cleansing agents shall be provided which meet the following requirements:

1. Soap, shampoo, and other cleansing agents shall be chosen for their compatibility with a wide range of skin types in a low humidity environment.

2. Some range of personal selection of cleaning agents, perhaps including alternative off-the-shelf commercial brand name preparations, shall be permitted as long as all items are judged safe for use in the space module environment and are compatible with on-board water reclamation and/or water and solid waste disposal systems.

e. Dressing Area - The capability for private body drying and dressing and a dry area for clothes shall be provided adjacent to the whole-body cleansing facility. The area provided for body drying and dressing shall be temperature controlled.

f. Capacity - The whole body washing system shall have sufficient capacity to allow each crewmember to wash a minimum of three times a week.

10.2.3.3 Oral Hygiene Design Requirements

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Oral hygiene facilities shall be provided for the crew and shall meet the following requirements:

a. Necessity for Facility - Oral hygiene facilities shall be provided for all missions that exceed 1 day.

b. Functional Requirement - Facilities shall allow the crew to daily maintain proper tooth, oral cavity, and gum cleaning and care.

c. Cross Contamination - The facilities shall prevent cross contamination among crewmembers.

d. Expectoration - Provide facility as necessary to allow the user to expectorate washing fluids and spittle.

10.2.3.4 Hair Cutting Design Requirements

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The hair cutting facility shall meet the following requirements:

a. Necessity for Facility - A facility shall be provided as necessary to keep facial and head hair the length dictated by mission requirements and personal grooming preferences.

(Rate of hair growth is shown in Figure 10.3.2-1.)

b. Facility Design - The facility shall be sufficiently large to allow a crewmember to assist in hair cutting and trimming. The facility shall be equipped with appropriate storage areas, restraints, and mirrors.

c. Debris Containment - The facility shall ensure that hair is contained and does not escape into the space module environment.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.1.3 Long-Term Mission Atmosphere Design Requirements, for further information on debris containment requirements.)

d. Lighting - Lighting shall be sufficient to see small details and shall be a minimum of 217 lux (20 fc).

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13, Lighting, for specific lighting requirements.)

10.2.3.5 Grooming and Shaving Design Requirements

{A}

Facilities shall be provided for the crewmember to maintain personal grooming. The facilities shall meet the following requirements:

a. Necessity for Facilities - A shaving and grooming facilities shall be provided for all missions that exceed 2 days.

(Refer to Figure 10.3.2-1 for the rate of generation of nails and hair.)

b. Debris Containment - The capability shall be provided for collection and containment of body hair and nails.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.1.3, Long-Term Mission Atmosphere Design Requirements, for further information on debris containment requirements.)

c. Supplies - Each crewmember shall have available a supply of items as required for skin care, shaving, hair removal (depilatory), hair grooming, nail care, and body deodorizing.

1. Grooming supplies, including soap, shampoo, and other cleansing agents, shall be chosen for their compatibility with a wide range of skin types in a low humidity environment.

2. Some range of personal selection of cleaning agents, perhaps including alternate off-the-shelf commercial brand name preparations, shall be permitted as long as all items are judged safe for use in the space module environment and are compatible with onboard water reclamation and/or water and solid waste disposal systems.

d. Facility Design - Grooming facilities shall consist of a designated space equipped with appropriate stowage areas, restraints, mirrors, and access to a water supply.

e. Lighting - Lighting shall be sufficient to see small details and shall be a minimum of 217 lux (20 fc). (See Paragraph 8.13, Lighting, for further lighting information).

10.3 BODY WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

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10.3.1 Introduction

{A}

This section discusses the human factors design considerations and requirements for the collection and disposal of wastes generated by the human body. The body waste management facilities handle feces, urine, vomitus, diarrhea, menses, and other wastes. Transfer, storage, and processing of waste products are not covered in this section; only facilities that directly interface with the crew are covered.

(Refer to Paragraph 10.11, Trash Management Facility, for information on collection and treatment of non-human, body generated wastes such as trash and garbage.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, for information on the design of waste management facilities.)

(Refer to Paragraph 14.2.3.7, EVA Body Waste Management Design Requirements, for information on the EVA waste management system.)

10.3.2 Body Waste Management Facilities Design Considerations

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The following considerations should be made in the design of the waste management system:

a. Reliability and Maintainability - System servicing and repair tasks are neither pleasant nor mission productive. Therefore, the system should be as reliable as possible and require a minimum of repair time. Scheduled maintenance and servicing times, including unloading and refurbishment, should be kept to a minimum.

b. Ease of Use - The system should be simple and quick to use. The system should readily be available for emergencies such as vomiting or diarrhea. As a design goal, the facilities should be used like and require approximately the same amount of time for use as equivalent Earth facilities.

c. Acceptance - The body waste management systems must be both psychologically and physiologically acceptable to the crewmembers. An unacceptable system can result in deliberate restriction or modification of the diet by the crew and possible nutritional deficiencies.

d. Microgravity Considerations - Gravity plays an important role in the removal of feces from the body during defecation in a 1-G environment. A substitute must be provided in a microgravity environment. Air flow has been used successfully in the past for the entrainment of both feces and urine in microgravity.

e. Post Defecation Cleansing - In microgravity, many more tissues are needed for cleansing the anal areas after defecation, because gravitational forces are not present to aid in separation of the feces from the body. Also, since settling does not occur, the uncompacted wipes occupy 1 1/2 to 3 times the volume that would be used in a 1-G environment.

f. Volume and Mass of Body Waste Products - The volume and mass of human body wastes are shown in Figure 10.3.2-1. Additional information is given below:

1. The normal feces bolus of a healthy adult varies in size from 100 to 200 mm (4 to 8 in) long by 15 to 40 mm (0.5 to 1.5 in) in diameter and weighs 100 to 200 grams (3.5 to 7 oz).

2. Urination time and rate of flow ranges are shown in Figure 10.3.2-2. Urine volumes tend to be larger in microgravity.

3. The maximum volume of expelled vomitus can be 1 liter (61 in3) of solids and fluids. This is with a fully distended stomach. The average volume of vomitus is more likely to be 200 to 500 ml (12 to 31 in3).

g. Anatomical Considerations - Dimensions of the body that should be considered for design of waste management facilities are shown in Figure 10.3.2-3. The body protuberances of the pelvis, ishial tuberoscities, support the seated body in 1-G conditions. In reduced gravity conditions, seat contours and restraints can help the crewmember to locate the ishial tuberoscities and thereby properly position the anus and urethra in relation to the collection devices. If air flow is used for collection and entrainment of feces and urine, it may be necessary to minimize the opening size for sealing. It has been found in both 1-G and microgravity conditions that it is possible to defecate through a 10 cm (4 in) diameter opening, although significant problems have been noted with this small an opening.

h. Body Posture - The following are considerations for determining the body posture during body waste management functions:

1. Urination - There is no evidence to suggest that posture has any effect on facilitating the act of urination.

2. Defecation - The act of defecation involves the use of the stomach muscles. The body should be positioned so that these muscles are supported and not strained.

Figure 10.3.2-1 Volume and Mass of Human Body Wastes

WASTE PRODUCTS MASS (gm/person/day) VOLUME (ml/person/day)

Hair growth

0.03 (0.3 to 0.5 mm per day)

Desquamated epithelium

3

2

Hair - depilation loss

0.03

0.03

Hair - facial - shaving loss

0.3

0.28

Nails

0.01

0.01

Solids in sweat

3

3

Sebaceous excretion - residue

4

4.2

Solids in saliva

0.01

0.01

Mucus

0.4

0.4

Mensus (see note 1)

113.4

113.4

Flatus as gas

-

2000

Solids in feces

20

19

Water in feces

100

100

Solid in urine

70

66

Water in urine (note 2)

1630

1630

Notes:

1. Approximately once every 26 to 34 days and lasts 4 to 6 days, approximately 80% released during first 3 days.

2. Based on Skylab data

Reference: 19, Section DNK3, pp. 2, 229; 278, Sec. C-2-3, p. C-26, NASA-STD-3000 215

Figure 10.3.2-2  Urination Time and Flow Rates

Figure of Urination Time and Flow Rates

Reference:  339, Figure 1, p. 2; NASA-STD-3000 216

Figure 10.3.2-3 Anatomical Dimensions for the Design of Body Waste Management Facilities

Figure of Anatomical Dimensions for the Design of Body Waste Management Facilities
DESCRIPTION DIMENSION DIMENSION RANGE cm (inches)

MALE

FEMALE

A

Lateral separation of ischial tuberosity

10 to 14 (4.0 to 5.5)

11 to 16 (4.3 to 6.2)

B

Width of perineal furrow

7.5 to 9 (3.0 to 3.5)

7.5 to 9 (3.0 to 3.5)

C

Anterior/posterior separation between tuberosities and exterior urethral opening

13 to 27 (5 to 10.6)

6 to 9 (2.5 to 3.7)

D

Anterior/posterior separation between anus and external urethral opening

15 to 30.5 (6 to 12)

9 to 11.5 (3.6 to 4.5)

Reference: 339, p. 3; 344, p. 124; NASA-STD-3000-217. 

10.3.3 Body Waste Management Facilities Design Requirements

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10.3.3.1 Defecation and Urination Facilities Design Requirements

{A}

The following are requirements for the design of crew defecation and urination facilities:

a. Use Accommodation - The collection module shall allow a male or female crewmember to defecate and urinate simultaneously while seated.

b. Vomitus Collection - Accommodations shall also be provided for vomitus collection within reach of the seated crewmember.

c. Ease of Urination - The urine receiver shall be located so that any crewmember may also urinate in the standing position without removing lower clothing.

d. Number of Facilities - One facility shall be provided for every four crewmembers.

e. Fecal Collection - Fecal collection facilities shall meet the following requirements:

1. The facilities shall provide crew interfaces to accommodate the collection of fecal solids, liquids, gases, particulates, and associated consumable material (e.g., wipes).

2. The facilities shall allow simultaneous urination and defecation while seated. In addition, accommodations shall be provided for vomitus collection within reach of the seated crewmember.

3. Capacity - The fecal collection system shall have the following capacity:

a) The average per person per day amount of fecal matter which the fecal collection devices shall accommodate shall be 142 grams (5.0 ounces) by weight and 142 ml (8.5 cubic inches) by volume.

b) The capability to accommodate a maximum of 1000 ml (61 cubic inches) of diarrhea discharge shall be provided.

c) The fecal collector shall accommodate a maximum BOLUS length of 330 mm (13 in).

d) Quantities in excess of these amounts shall not result in an unrecoverable condition.

f. Urine Collection - Urine collection facilities shall meet the following requirements.

1. The facilities shall provide crew interfaces to accommodate liquid capture and splash control, and disposal of associated consumable material (e.g., wipes).

2. The facilities shall capture, isolate, stabilize, and store all wastes and wipes generated during urination.

3. Capacity - The urine collection system shall have the following capacity:

a) The urine collection devices shall accommodate a maximum urine output volume of 4000 ml (244 cubic inches) per person per day.

b) The urine collection system shall be designed to accommodate urinary discharge up to 800 ml (49 cubic inches) in a single micturition at a delivery rate of 50 ml/sec (3 cubic inches per second).

c) Urine volumes in excess of these amounts shall not result in an unrecoverable condition.

g. Sanitation - The defecation and urination facilities shall meet the following sanitation requirements:

1. The facilities shall be designed to allow periodic cleansing and disinfection of crew interfaces and subsystems.

2. The facilities shall prevent cross contamination among the crewmembers.

3. The facilities shall not contaminate other areas of the space module.

h. Noise - A means shall be provided to control noise form the facility equipment and/or crewmembers when the equipment is in operation.

i. Odors - Odors from the facility and from storage and handling facilities shall be controlled.

j. Privacy - Defecation and urination facilities shall provide both visual and auditory privacy for the user.

k. Capacity - Sufficient urination and defecation facilities and capacity shall be provided to allow use by the crew within mission time and schedule constraints.

l. Contingency System - A contingency urination and defecation facility shall be provided in the event of primary system failure.

m. Restraints - Appropriate restraints shall be provided for facility user and post use cleanup.

n. Body Cleansing - Provision shall be provided in the urination and defecation facilities for inspecting and cleaning the body after use and the disposal of used materials.

o. Anatomical Accommodation - Urination and defecation facilities shall be provided to accommodate the physiological differences of male and female crewmembers and the anatomical size range of the crew. The crew interface hardware shall be appropriately designed to allow easy interface with other personal hygiene equipment, personal hygiene supplies, and crewmember clothing.

p. Handling of Feces and Urine - If a crewmember is required to handle urine or feces samples for transfer to another area, the following requirements apply:

1. Crewmembers shall be protected form direct contact with waste material.

2. Waste material odors shall be controlled.

3. Methods shall be provided to prevent escape of waste material into the environment.

4. Transfer containers shall be so constructed to prevent microbial escape during transfer.

q. Inspection - The capability shall be provided for a crewmember to visually inspect his or her fecal waste products.

10.3.3.2 Facilities for Other Waste Products Design Requirements

{A}

In addition to facilities for urination and defecation, the waste management facility shall have the following capabilities:

a. Vomitus - The waste management facility shall be able to collect, contain, transport, and treat vomit. The collection facility shall be readily accessible, particularly during the first few days of the mission.

b. Menses - A means of collection, treatment, and disposal of menstrual discharge and associated absorbent material shall be provided to female crewmembers. The facility shall be private.

c. Transfer Containers - Transfer containers, if required, shall be so constructed as to prevent microbial escape during transfer

10.3.4 Example Body Waste Management Facility Design

{O}

The STS urination and defecation facility contains the following features which have proven successful:

a. Restraints - The following restraints are provided in the facility:

1. Spring loaded thigh bars that press the user against the opening used for defecation.

2. Footstraps to stabilize the body for clean up after defecation.

b. Urine collectors - Funnels at the end of a suction tube are used to collect urine only (without defecation). For males, a straight conical funnel approximately 7.6 cm (3 in) long and 5.4 cm (2-1/8 in) in diameter (at the large end) was selected as optimum. For females, an oval funnel was developed which had angled air inlet openings to give a vortex action to the airflow. Each crewmember has a personal collector.

c. Supplies - The compartment is arranged so that cleanup supplies can be readily accessed. These supplies should include gloves, dry and wet wipes, tissues, germicidal agents, etc. The overall layout is shown in Figure 10.3.4-1.

Figure 10.3.4-1  Overall Layout of the STS Waste Management Station

Figure of Overall Layout of the STS Waste Management Station

Reference: 312, Page 882; NASA-STD-3000-218

10.4 CREW QUARTERS

{A}

10.4.1 Introduction

{A}

This section covers design considerations and requirements for the design and layout of private activity and sleeping quarters for an individual crewmember. Although the quarters described are basically for use in a microgravity environment, most of the considerations and requirements listed are applicable to systems in any space environment.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6, Envelope Geometry For Crew Functions, for volume envelope design considerations and requirements.)

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, for information on crew quarters location considerations and requirements.)

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.4, Sleep, for information on sleep and its relationship to health.)

10.4.2 Individual Crew Quarters Design Considerations

{O}

The following design considerations apply to the design and layout of crew quarters.

a. Mission Duration and Privacy - The amount of volume required for each crewmember is dependent on the duration of the mission. As the mission becomes longer the need for privacy increases. Crewmembers sequentially occupying the same sleep space (hot-bunking) should usually be avoided. There are several design solutions for individual privacy. One of these solutions is described in this section: private quarters for individual recreation and sleeping. Other arrangements for privacy include:

1. Dormitory sleeping and private areas available to each crewmember.

2. Shared private quarters so that two crewmembers on different shifts share the same quarters.

3. Quarters for two individuals who want privacy (i.e., married couples).

4. Expanded function quarters which might include full body wash facility, waste management facility, office, private dining, or meeting facility.

b. Functional Considerations - The design and layout of the crew quarters depends on the functions that are to be performed. Figure 10.4.2-1 shows the functions that might occur in individual crew quarters and the design considerations to accommodate these functions.

Figure 10.4.2-1 Individual Crew Quarter Functional and Design Considerations

FUNCTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS REFERENCE PARAGRAPHS

Wake up

Alarm or annunciator

9.4.4

Dress

Adequate volume

8.6.2.3

Privacy 8.6.2.4
Restraints 11.7
Clothes and personal items storage 10.4.3

Straighten/clean quarters

Bedding storage

 

Vacuum and wipe capability 13.2

Groom

Adequate lighting

10.2.3.5

Mirrors

10.2.3.5

Stowage for grooming supplies 10.2.3.5
Proximity to personal hygiene facility 8.3.2.2

Exit

Lock for personal items

 

Property configured door and path 8.8, 8.10

Enter

Property configured door

8.8, 8.10

Relax

Communications with friends or family at home

 

10.7.2

Entertainment material: books, audio and video entertainment, games, etc.  
Adjustable lighting

8.13

Window 8.11, 11.11
Ventilation and temperature control 5.8
Restraint 8.9, 11.7, 11.8
Snack storage and cleanup capability   
Aesthetically pleasing environment 8.12

Prepare for sleep

Clothing and bedding storage

10.10.3

Proximity to personal hygiene and body waste management facility 8.3
Privacy  

Sleep

Quiet

5.4

Privacy  
Adjustable lighting 8.13
Bedding  
Restraints 8.9, 11.7, 11.8
Ventilation and temperature control  
Stability (minimum vibration and acceleration) 5.5

Emergency

Alarm

9.4

Two way communications with other crewmembers or ground control 9.4.3
Emergency lighting 8.13
Property configured door and path 8.8, 8.10

Work

Privacy

 

 

Workstation  

NASA-STD-3000-347

10.4.3 Individual Crew Quarters Design Requirements

{A}

The following are design requirements for one-person individual crew quarters:

a. Communications - Two way audio/visual/data communications system shall be provided between the crew quarters and other module areas, and the ground. The system shall have the capability of alerting the crew quarters occupant in an emergency.

b. Environmental Controls - Independent lighting, ventilation and temperature control shall be provided in crew quarters and shall be adjustable from a sleep restraint.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.8.3, Thermal Environment Design Requirements, for thermal and ventilation requirements, and Paragraph 8.13.3, Lighting Design Requirements, for lighting requirements.)

c. Noise - The noise levels in the crew quarters shall be as defined in Paragraph 5.4.3.2.3.1.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.4.3.2.3.1, Wide-Band Long-Term Noise Exposure Requirements, for permissible noise levels.)

d. Movement - The vibration and acceleration of the crew quarters shall be minimized to the maximum extent possible.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.5.3.3.3, Reduced Comfort Boundary, for sleep area vibration limits.)

e. Stowage - Facilities shall be provided in the crew compartment for stowing the following items:

1. Bedding.

2. Clothing.

3. Personal Items.

f. Compartment Size - For long duration space missions, dedicated, private crew quarters shall be provided for each crewmember with sufficient integral volume to meet the following functional and performance requirements:

1. 1.50 m3 (53 ft3) for sleeping.

2. 0.63 m3 (22 ft3 ) for stowage of operational and personal equipment.

3. 1.19 m3 (42 ft3 ) for donning and doffing clothing.

4. Additional free volume, as necessary, for using a desk, computer/communication system, trash stowage, personal grooming, dressing/undressing convalescence, off-duty activities, and access to stowage or equipment without interference to or from permanently mounted or temporarily stowed hardware. The internal dimensions of the crew quarters shall be sufficient to accommodate the largest body size crewmember under consideration.

(Refer to Figure 8.6.2.3-1 for maximum 1-g unrestrained clothing don/doff envelope.)

g. Exit and Entry - The opening shall be sufficiently large to allow contingency entry by an EVA suited crewmember.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.10.3, Hatch and Door Design Requirements, for requirements on doors.)

(Refer to Paragraph 14.5.3.5, EVA Passageway Design Requirements, for minimum opening for EVA suited crewmember.)

h. Privacy - The individual crew quarters shall provide visual privacy to and form the occupant and acoustic privacy as defined in Paragraph 5.4.3.2.3.1.

i. Restraints - Restraints shall be provided as necessary for activities such as sleeping, dressing, recreation, and cleaning.

(Refer to Paragraph 11.7.2.3, Personnel Restraints Design Requirements, for requirements on restraints.)

j. Windows - Window accommodations shall be provided in individual crew quarters on long duration missions.

10.5 GALLEY AND WARDROOM

{A}

10.5.1 Introduction

{A}

This section discusses the galley and wardroom and the facilities in these areas for the storage, preparation, consumption, and cleanup of food and water. The section covers equipment requirements only.

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.2, Nutrition, for information on nutritional requirements.)

The wardroom can be used for purposes other than an eating facility, including recreation or meetings.

(Refer to Paragraph 10.6, Meeting Facility, for a discussion of meeting facilities.)

(Refer to Paragraph 10.7, Recreation Facility, for a discussion of recreational facilities.)

10.5.2 Galley and Wardroom Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations for the design of the space module galley and wardroom:

a. Meal Selection - The specific meal selected by the crewmember will depend on a variety of factors. Any system designed to assist the crewmember in the selection and retrieval of the food should incorporate these factors. Factors which will influence meal selection are listed below:

1. Personal preference of the crewmember.

2. Food inventory.

3. Nutritional requirements of the crewmember.

4. Schedule and the time available for meal preparation and consumption.

5. Special nutritional studies.

b. Meal Preparation and Cleanup Method - The method of meal preparation and cleanup must be considered. If each individual is to prepare their own meal, then the galley must be sized to allow several crewmembers to work simultaneously (assuming a common meal shift). If one or two persons will be assigned to meal preparation and cleanup, then the galley could be smaller.

c. Type of Food and Food Packaging - Food type, packaging, and food preparation hardware must be compatible. Fresh food or food packaged in bulk form will require different preparation equipment than pre-prepared food in individual servings.

d. Food Serving Methods and Utensils - The type of equipment selected to serve and eat the food will impact the design of the galley. Preparation in disposable packages and consumption with disposable utensils will reduce the need for dishwashing facilities but may impact significantly the mass and volume of disposable biologically active trash.

e. Food Consumption Locations - Past space flight experience is indicated that a large percentage of food is consumed at work stations remote from the food preparation area. This strongly indicates that provisions should be made for frequent consumption of food as efficiently and completely as possible at locations remote from the preparation area.

f. Human Productivity - The design of the galley should minimize crew time and effort and maximize acceptability of the food. Routine and onerous tasks should be eliminated or automated if possible.

g. Recreation/Enjoyment - Meals can do a lot to enhance the quality of the crewmembers' lives. In addition to satisfying hunger, mealtime can provide a chance to rest, socialize, and provide a familiar contact to normal Earth living. In addition to the boost in individual morale, there are advantages to be gained from the social aspects of mealtime. It has been suggested that space travelers should plan to share at least one meal a day together in order to help maintain a positive group feeling.

h. Microgravity Considerations - Some of the effects of microgravity that must be considered in galley and wardroom design are listed below:

1. Powdered or flaky foods will separate and float away. Sticky foods or foods held together with a semi-liquid substance (gravy or sauce) can remain in open containers without floating away.

2. Trash will tend to float and fill all available space in a trash container. Trash compaction is necessary.

3. Food preparation techniques, such as boiling and convection heating (without forced air), will not work in microgravity.

4. Spills, trash, and odorous particulates will not settle to the floor. Waste should be captured, contained, and stabilized.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.2, Housekeeping, for additional information.)

10.5.3 Galley and Wardroom Design Requirements

{A}

10.5.3.1 Overall Galley and Wardroom Layout Design Requirement

{A}

The following requirements apply to the overall layout of a space module galley and wardroom:

a. Traffic Flow - The galley and wardroom shall be configured to provide clear traffic paths for the crew to efficiently perform the following tasks:

1. Food selection and inventory control.

2. Food retrieval.

3. Food preparation.

4. Food consumption.

5. Clean up.

b. Size of Crewmembers - Galley and wardroom hardware shall be usable by international crews and by the full size range of crewmembers.

(See Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size, for specific dimensions.)

c. Restraints - Restraints shall be provided for crewmembers, food, utensils, cooking equipment, and other loose items as necessary at galley and wardroom locations.

d. Lighting and Noise Conditions - The capability to adjust light levels and directionality shall be provided. Ambient noise levels shall be held below limits defined in Paragraph 5.4.3.2.3.1 as defined for work periods

(Refer to Paragraph 11.7, Personnel Restraints Design Requirements, for specific restraint design requirements.)

10.5.3.2 Food Selection, Preparation, Consumption Design Requirements

{A}

The space module galley and wardroom shall provide the following facilities for food selection, preparation, and consumption:

a. Inventory Update and Review - The galley shall provide a system which allows for simple and rapid update and review of the food, beverage and water inventory.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.3.3, Inventory Control Design Requirements, for additional requirements.)

b. Identification - All food items shall be identifiable in terms of contents and method of preparation.

c. Accessibility - A pantry or immediately accessible stowage area for at least one day's food supply for the entire crew shall be provided in the galley.

d. Heating - A means shall be provided in the galley for heating food and liquids to at least 66o C (150 o F) in less than 30 minutes and for maintaining that temperature.

e. Chilling - A means shall be provided in the galley for cooling food and liquids to 4o ± 2o C (39o ± 3oF).

f. Rehydration - A means shall be provided in the galley for injecting necessary potable water for rehydration of food.

(Refer to Paragraph 7.2.2.3.2, Potable Water - Design Requirements, for potable water requirements.)

g. Serving and Preparation Utensils - Area shall be provided in the galley for stowage of the following serving and preparation items:

1. Eating utensils.

2. Servicing equipment (trays, plates, containers, etc.).

3. Preparation tools and containers.

h. A table shall be provided for eating

10.5.3.3 Food Packaging and Stowage Design Requirements

{A}

In addition to the general packaging design requirements given in Paragraph 11.12.3, all food packaging shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

a. Package Portions - Food shall be packaged in quantities optimally suited for ease of handling and rate of consumption.

b. Rehydration Provisions - For foods that require water for reconstitution, provision shall be made for the package to accept water directly from a probe without contaminating the probe and to hold the water and contents without spillage after removal of the probe.

c. Kneading Provisions - For foods that require in-package mixing, provision shall be made for kneading of the enclosed contents without spillage and with adequate visibility.

d. Integration With Food Preparation System - For foods that require heating, chilling, mixing, repackaging, etc., the food packaging and appropriate food preparation system(s) shall be compatible.

e. Minimum Spillage - Food packages and ancillary hardware shall be designed to facilitate eating with minimum spillage.

f. Toxicity - Food packaging materials shall be approved by the Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services

10.5.3.4 Galley and Wardroom Cleaning Design Requirements

{A}

The following facilities shall be provided for galley and wardroom cleaning and sanitation:

a. Design for Cleaning - The surfaces in the galley and wardroom shall be easily accessible for cleaning and sanitation. The surface texture shall be capable of being wiped clean. Closeouts shall be provided to preclude contamination in areas that are inaccessible.

b. Cleaning Supplies and Equipment - Cleaning supplies and equipment shall be readily available to the galley and wardroom. The equipment and supplies shall be capable of the following:

1. Sanitizing the galley and wardroom.

2. Collection, containment, and stabilization (as necessary) of debris, spills, and odors.

3. Washing and sanitizing of reusable utensils, serving equipment, and preparation equipment.

c. Trash Collection - A trash collection point shall be provided in the galley and wardroom for both wet and dry trash. Trash shall be kept out of sight and odors shall be controlled so that the trash collection points are not aesthetically objectionable to the crew.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.2.3, Housekeeping Design Requirements, for specific requirements.)

10.6 MEETING FACILITY

{A}

10.6.1 Introduction

{A}

This section discusses the considerations and requirements for the design of a meeting facility within the space module. The wardroom can be used as a meeting facility.

10.6.2 Meeting Facility Design Considerations

{A}

The following considerations should be made for the design of a meeting facility:

a. Capacity - The meeting facility must comfortably and safely accommodate the expected number of meeting participants. This includes the passageways to meeting facility, the size of the entry and exit, and the volume of the room.

b. Location - If a meeting facility is to be used often, then it should be located centrally to the space module where transit times for the participants can be minimized. The following are additional location considerations:

1. Waste management facility - It is desirable to have waste management facilities near the meeting facility if the meetings last more than 1 to 2 hours.

2. Galley - It is desirable to have availability of refreshment during extended meetings.

3. Sleeping or other areas sensitive to noise, light, and vibration - The activities in a meeting may be disturbing to adjacent functions. The meeting facility location should be selected with this in mind.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, for more information on adjacencies.)

c. Location of Meeting Participants - Participants should be positioned to facilitate the various types of meetings to be conducted. This requires flexibility in the location of the furnishings and seating or restraint placement (in the case of microgravity conditions). The following arrangements are possible:

1. Full crew interactive discussions; large table

2. Small group interactive discussions.

3. Several small group interactive discussions.

4. Auditorium presentation.

Guidelines for arrangement of interactive meeting places in 1-G or partial gravity conditions are shown in Figure 10.6.2-1. In microgravity conditions, the neutral body posture should be accommodated in the size and arrangement of the meeting facility. Figure 10.6.2-2 gives information on the arrangement of an auditorium for screen viewing. This information applies to all gravity conditions.

Figure 10.6.2.1  Guidelines for Arrangement of Interactive Meetings: Partial or One Gravity Conditions

Sketches showing Arrangement of Interactive Meetings: Partial or One Gravity Conditions

Reference: 111, p. 694; NASA-STD-3000 342

Figure 10.6.2-2  Auditorium Arrangement for Viewing Large Screen Displays

Sketches showing Auditorium Arrangement for Viewing Large Screen Displays
Factor Optimum Prefered limits Acceptable limits
Viewing distance to the screen 4 x A 3 x A to 6 x A 2 x A to 8 x A
θ Angle off centerline 0 deg 20 deg 30 deg

Reference: 2, page 46 NASA-STD-3000-343

(Refer to Paragraph 8.6.2.3, Body Envelope Design Considerations, for the neutral body posture envelope, and Paragraph 3.3.4, Neutral Body Posture, for neutral body posture limb angles.)

d. Environmental Factors - The following are environmental considerations for design of a meeting facility:

1. Noise - The noise level must be sufficiently low to conduct meetings.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.4.3.2.2.1, Direct Voice Communications Noise Exposure Requirements, for noise level requirements.)

2. Temperature and ventilation - The temperature and ventilation control system will have to accommodate several different group sizes.

(Refer to Paragraph 5.8.3, Thermal Environment Design Requirements, for temperature and ventilation requirements.)

3.Lighting - The meeting facility lighting must allow viewing of both projected or self-illuminated displays and non self-illuminated displays.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13.3, Lighting Design Requirements, for additional information.)

e. Equipment Requirements - The meeting facility should provide equipment and equipment storage areas necessary for conduct of meetings. The design of the meeting facility should consider accommodation of the following equipment items:

1. Projection system.

2. Screen or central display area.

3. Means for meeting participants to record proceedings of the meeting.

4. Microphone and speakers.

5. Two way communication facilities for participation of persons outside the module.

6. Audio and visual recording and playback equipment.

10.6.3 Meeting Facility Design Requirements

{A}

The following are design requirements for the meeting facility:

a. Size - The meeting facility shall accommodate a meeting of the entire space module crew.

b. Physical Arrangement - The meeting facility furnishings, seating, and restraints shall be easily repositioned for various meeting formats.

c. Acoustics - The acoustic environment of the meeting facility shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 5.4.3.2.2.1, Direct Voice Communication Noise Exposure Requirements.

d. Lighting - The lighting controls shall be capable of providing variable intensity lighting.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.13.3, Lighting Design Requirements, for requirements on specific lighting levels.)

e. Multi-Use - Meeting facilities which are to be utilized for other functions (e.g., dining) shall be carefully designed such that none of the intended uses shall be degraded through incorporation of the additional use capabilities.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.2.3.2., Dedicated Vs. Multipurpose Architectural Design Requirements for further multipurpose space requirements.)

10.6.4 Example Facility Design Solution

{O}

The Skylab wardroom table shown in Figure 10.6.4-1 served as a desk for paperwork and as a convenient meeting place (in addition to an eating surface). The wardroom table was approximately 100 cm (39 in) high and 120 cm (47 in) in diameter. Skylab crewmembers averaged approximately 50th percentile in most dimensions. It was found that the there was sufficient room to accommodate three crewmembers around the table. Crew members complained, however, about the height of the table. They felt that it should be raised to their chest level for both meeting and eating purposes.

10.7 RECREATION FACILITY

{A}

10.7.1 Introduction

{A}

This section covers the design of a space module recreation facility. The recreation facility considered in this section is a central facility for the full crew of the space module to use.

(Refer to Paragraph 10.4.2, Individual Crew Quarters Design Considerations, for information on recreational facilities in the individual crew quarters.

Figure 10.6.4-1 Skylab Wardroom Table

Figure of person working at a Skylab Wardroom Table

Reference: 131, page 11; NASA-STD-3000-344

10.7.2 Recreation Facility Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations to be made when designing a recreation facility for a space module:

a. Storage - There should be a location near the recreation facility for storage of games, books, audio-visual materials, and other recreational items. This storage location should have an inventory of the contents and instructions for the use of the recreational materials.

b. Size and Configuration - The exact size and configuration of the recreation facility will depend on the type of recreation scheduled. Figure 10.7.2-1 shows possible recreation activities and the impact of these activities on the facility design.

c. Selection of Recreation - The following are considerations for determining the type of recreation the facility will accommodate:

1. Antarctic studies - Studies made on the leisure activities of members of isolated Antarctic research station members are summarized in Figure 10.7.2-2.

2. Past space missions - Some of the favorite leisure activities of space mission crews are listed below:

a) Communications with friends and relatives on Earth.

b) Looking out a window at space and the Earth.

c) Listening to music.

Figure 10.7.2-1 Recreation Facility Design Considerations Based on Recreation Activity

Recreation activity Design considerations Reference paragraphs

Reading

Restraints or seating in isolated locations

8.13, 9.4.2.3.1.1

Adequate illumination at reading surface  
Quiet for concentration 5.4.3.2.3
Storage area for books or other material  

Conversation

Comfortable furnishings arranged to promote social interaction

8.6.2.4

Noise level below speech interference level 5.4.3.2.3
Reduce illumination 8.13
Proximity to galley 10.5

Observation

Proximity to windows

8.11

Image enhancements (binoculars, telescope)  
Reduced illumination 8.13

Visual entertainment (movies, tapes, etc.)

Variable illumination

8.13

Visual entertainment equipment, storage areas, power supplies  
Arrangement of restraints or seating for visibility 10.6.2

Games-active

Proximity to personal hygiene facilities

10.2

Adjustable ventilation and thermal controls to accommodate increased activity 5.8

Clear area and furnishing storage area

 
Padding  
Storage area for games equipment (including personal protective gear)  
Acoustical and dynamic isolation from sensitive areas of the module 5.4, 5.5, 8.3

Music listening

Audio generation equipment, storage location, power

 

Musical selections, storage location  
Speakers (room or individual)  

NASA-STD-3000-345

Figure 10.7.2-2  Leisure Activities Among Antarctic Research Station Members.  Rank Order of Activity Preference by Occupational Groups for Both Early and Late in the Mission

Activity Early Late Early Late Early Late
Movies 1 1 1 1 1 1
Bull sessions (present job) 2 2 4 4 4 4
Bull sessions (past job) 5 4 5 3 6 7
Bull sessions (general) 12 12 10 10 8 8
Reading fiction 14 9 12 6 7 6
Reading biographies 20 17 20 16 20 15
Reading religious literature 16 18 17 20 16 19.5
Reading technical magazines 7 6 9 8 5 5
Studying courses 10 7.5 7 7 9 9
Ham radio 9 14 8 9 11.5 11
Writing letters 13 16 13 18 10 18
Physical exercise 19 15 15 12 15 10
Painting and drawing 17 20 16 17 17 19.5
"Happy Hour" 11 7.5 14 15 14 13
Cards 15 11 18 14 19 17
Chess or checkers 18 19 19 19 18 14
Pool or billiards 8 10 11 11 11.5 16
Classical music 6 13 6 13 2 3
Popular music 4 3 3 2 3 2
Western-country music 3 5 2 5 13 12
N 91 84 75 70 101 81
Note:  Scale 1 to 20 with "1" denoting greatest preference

Reference: 316, p. 133; NASA-STD-3000 346

3. Crew preferences - The crew should be allowed to select their leisure activities from a wide variety of possibilities.

4. Microgravity games - Consideration should be given to providing supplies for game invention and experimentation in a microgravity environment. These games can boost crew morale and act as a motivator for exercise countermeasures.

d. Environmental Control - Active game areas will produce heat, perspiration, and debris. Ventilation and heating must control temperature and odor. In microgravity conditions this can become a complex problem. Heat will not dissipate from the body through thermal convection. Forced ventilation must be used. Perspiration and debris will not fall to the ground but must be collected and contained. Clothing might be used to collect perspiration. Debris such as hair and lint might have to be controlled through ventilation and filtration.

10.7.3 Recreation Facility Design Requirements

{A}

The following are the design requirements for a space module recreation facility:

a. Size - The facility shall be sufficiently large to accommodate all crewmembers scheduled for leisure activities.

b. Flexibility - The facility shall be capable of accommodating a wide range of recreational activities with a minimum of conversion and setup time. This includes rearrangement of furnishings, setup of recreational equipment, and adjustment of environmental controls.

c. Location - Recreational facilities shall be located where they do not conflict or restrict the activities of other space module functions and, conversely, they shall be located where the planned recreational activities are not compromised by other space module activities.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3.3, Crew Station Adjacencies Design Requirements, for further requirements.)

d. Window - Where feasible, an outside viewing window shall be provided for recreational purposes.

e. Environment - Capability shall be provided to maintain the thermal environment within the requirements defined in Paragraph 5.8.3, Thermal Environment Design Requirements. A system shall be available to control debris and odors generated during recreational activities.

10.8 MICROGRAVITY COUNTERMEASURE FACILITY

{O}

10.8.1 Introduction

{O}

This section discusses the facilities used in a microgravity environment to combat the harmful effects of microgravity on the human body. The requirement for a microgravity countermeasure facility assumes that the mission duration will be 10 days or longer. The functional requirements and goals of the microgravity countermeasure facilities are discussed in Paragraph 7.2.3, Reduced Gravity Countermeasures.

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9, Strength, and Paragraph 4.10, Workload, for additional information on the detrimental physiological effects of microgravity.)

10.8.2 Microgravity Countermeasure Facility Design Consideration

{O }

A summary of the effects of microgravity on the human body, possible countermeasures, and considerations for the design of facilities to support these countermeasures is shown in Figure 10.8.2-1. The following is a further discussion of these considerations:

a. Mission Duration - This section assumes a mission duration of at least 10 days. For missions less than 10 days, an exercise facility is desirable for crew morale and well-being. The anticipated physiological decrements of a short mission can be countered by compensatory conditioning programs prior to the mission.

b. Multi Facility Function - The effects of microgravity can be counteracted in a number of different facilities in the space module, if such are equipped with appropriate countermeasures exercise equipment. The primary function of the microgravity countermeasure facility would be to serve as an area for exercise specific to countermeasure capability and for storage of this equipment.

Figure 10.8.2-1 Micro-Gravity Countermeasures Facility Design Considerations

Zero gravity effect Possible countermeasures Facility and equipment Notes

Cardiovascular

deconditioning

Low resistance, high frequent exercise of large muscle groups (aerobic exercise)

Exercise device (aerobic ergometer) 

 

Need volume for storage and use 

Heart rate and metabolic monitoring system Heart rate and metabolic monitoring systems could be part of Space Medical Facility (see Para. 10.9). Heart rate monitoring should be routine; metabolic monitoring could be periodic (weekly).

Adequate ventilation, cooling

 
Timer  
Diversion from boredom  
Post exercise body wash (See Para.10.2, Personal Hygiene)

Athletic games

Could be in Recreation Facility (see Para.10.7)

Game equipment  
Adequate ventilation, cooling  
Post game body wash (See Para.10.2, Personal Hygiene)

Fluid loss

Fluid loading prior to 1-G entry

Storage area for fluids and fluid administration supplies

Could be part of Galley (see Para. 10.5) or Space Medical Facility (see Para. 10.9)

Pharmaceuticals

Storage area 

Would be part of Space Medical Facility (see Para. 10.9)

Inventory system  

Bone mineral loss

Skeletal loading through low frequency, high resistance exercise (anaerobic exercise)

Exercise equipment

Need volume for storage and use

Centrifuge Considerable impact on vibration, dynamics, volume, and cost

Pharmaceuticals

Storage area Inventory system

Would be part of Space Medical Facility (see Para. 10.9)

Disorientation; space adaptation syndrome; neuromuscular patterning not adapted to micro gravity; loss of one gravity neuro-muscular patterning.

 

Loss of muscle mass, strength and endurance

Psycho-motor exercise

Padded surfaces 

Could be part of Recreational Facility (see Para. 10.7)

Mobility aids and restraints for practicing body movements and placement  
Visual orientation cues  

Pharmaceuticals

Storage area 

Could be done in Health Facility (see Para. 10.9)

Inventory system  

Exercise of specific muscle groups;

1. Low frequency, high resistance anaerobic exercise.

2. High frequency, low resistance aerobic exercise (primary exercise)

Exercise devices (both isotonic and isokinetic devices)

Need volume for storage and use

Reference: 208, pages 265-280 NASA-STD-3000183, Rev. A

c. Scheduling Capability - The microgravity countermeasure facility should have means to control the type and quantity of countermeasures administered to each crewmember. This would include a means to track the effects of the countermeasure and provisions for revising the countermeasure protocol and/or schedule.

d. Boredom and Crew Productivity - Microgravity countermeasures such as exercise may be boring because of a lack of mental stimulation. The following are ways in which a facility may reduce the boredom and increase the productivity of the crewmember:

1. Recreation facilities - Provide supplemental facilities for listening to music, news, video entertainment, etc.

2. Social interaction - Locate fixed countermeasure facilities near each other or near points where people are congregated to allow social interaction.

3. Workstation facilities - Add compatible workstation facilities to the countermeasure facilities so that the crewmember can perform productive work while undergoing countermeasure activities.

4. Mobile facilities - Some countermeasure facilities can be made mobile (such as the elasticized body suit) so that they may be used at other crew stations.

e. Facility Location - The following considerations should be made when locating a fixed facility within the space module:

1. Vibration and noise - Some exercise equipment is noisy and causes vibration. This equipment should be isolated from sensitive areas such as crew quarters or sensitive workstations.

2. Personal hygiene area - Post exercise whole or part body washing facilities should be close to the countermeasure facility.

3. Galley or potable water dispenser - Liquids should be available for crewmembers during strenuous exercise.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.3, Crew Station Adjacencies, for further information.)

f. Microgravity Considerations - The design of the countermeasure facilities should account for the effects of microgravity. Some of these considerations are listed below:

1. Drying of perspiration - Perspiration will not drip from the body but will pool on the body and then float into the atmosphere. Methods of eliminating perspiration before it has a chance to contaminate the module, such as absorptive clothing or a high flow level or dry air, should be investigated.

2. Convection cooling - In 1-G, warm air around the body will rise providing cooling. In microgravity this will not occur. Ventilation for cooling must be provided through forced air.

3. Debris containment - Debris, such as hair and lint, will not fall to the floor where it can be swept up. There must be a means, such as a vacuum system, to collect such material.

10.8.3 Microgravity Countermeasure Facility Design Requirement

{O}

The following equipment and facilities shall be available for all long duration missions in microgravity conditions.

10.8.3.1 Microgravity Countermeasures Equipment/Supplies Design Requirements

{O}

The microgravity countermeasure facility shall support the following countermeasure modalities:

a. Cardiovascular (aerobic and anaerobic exercise)

b. Muscle Performance (strength, power, and endurance of upper arm, forearm, thigh, lower leg, trunk).

c. Skeletal Maintenance

d. Non-Exercise Countermeasures:

1. Pressurized Countermeasures (i.e. LBNP).

2. Pharmacologic Countermeasures (i.e. oral rehydration and other pharmacological countermeasures).

3. Space Motion Sickness Countermeasures (i.e. prophylactic medicine).

10.8.3.1.1 Exercise Equipment

{O}

a. Strength Equipment - An isotonic strength mechanism (probably an ergometer), capable of imposing resistive forces of from 45 to 1335 N (10 to 300 lb), so that crewmembers can perform weight-lifting type exercises, shall be included

b. Aerobic Equipment - A minimum of one piece of aerobic exercise equipment shall be provided.

c. Anaerobic Equipment

d. Skeletal Muscle Equipment

10.8.3.1.2 Exercise Countermeasure Environment Design Requirements

{O}

The space module shall provide the following capabilities for the exercise facilities.

10.8.3.1.2.1 Resources

{O}

Cooling and Ventilation Capabilities to handle increased metabolic rates during exercise.

10.8.3.1.2.2 Additional Capabilities

{O}

The space module shall provide the following additional capabilities.

a. Noise and Vibration Control

b. Boredom/Motivation - Subsystems to minimize boredom and provide motivation.

c. Monitoring and Recording - Facilities for monitoring the extent of countermeasure utilization, the effects of the countermeasure, and the condition of the crewmembers.

d. Schedule and Prescription Adjustment - A means to adjust the countermeasure schedule and prescription based on the status of the crewmembers.

10.8.3.2 Non-Exercise Countermeasures

{A}

10.8.3.2.1 Non-Exercise Countermeasures Design Requirements

{O}

The following capabilities shall be provided:

10.8.3.2.1.1 Pressurized Countermeasures

{O}

a. Lower Body Positive Pressure - Lower body positive pressure devices for gravity protection during 1-g entry and landing.

b. Lower Body Negative Pressure - Lower body negative pressure device for use in microgravity in the prevention of orthostatic intolerance upon 1-g entry and landing and maintenance of overall cardiovascular conditioning

10.8.3.2.1.2 Pharmacological Countermeasure

{O}

a. Oral rehydration (fluid loading) to increase total fluid volume of the body, just prior to 1-g entry.

b. Other pharmacological countermeasures.

10.8.3.2.1.3 Space Motion Sickness Countermeasures

{O}

Prophylactic medications shall be provided for space motion sickness countermeasures.

10.8.3.3 Microgravity Countermeasures Program Administration Design Requirements

{O}

The following facilities shall be provided for administration of the countermeasure program:

a. Protocol - Provide the crewmembers with a protocol for application of the countermeasures.

b. Monitoring and Recording - Provide facilities for monitoring the extent of countermeasure utilization, the effects of the countermeasures and the condition of the crewmembers.

c. Schedule and Protocol Revision - Provide a means to adjust the countermeasure schedule and protocol based on the status of the crewmembers

10.8.3.4 Countermeasure Monitoring Design Requirements

{O}

The following capabilities shall be provided for monitoring the microgravity countermeasure program.

a. Link With Medical Facility - Exercise devices shall have a real-time data link with the onboard medical facility.

b. Routine monitoring - The capability shall be provided to monitor the following parameters on a routine basis:

1) Heart rate.

2) Duration of exercise period.

3) Power output from instrumented exercise device.

c. Periodic monitoring - The capability shall be provided to monitor the following parameters on a periodic basis:

1) Electrocardiograph output - 12 Lead ECG.

2) Blood pressure - Automated indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

3) Maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake (V02).

4) Muscle strength - Muscle strength measurement of major muscle groups.

10.8.3.5 Display Capabilities for Exercising Crewmembers Design Requirements

{O}

The following display capabilities shall be provided for exercising crewmembers:

a. Exercise Parameters - Display of exercise parameters (heart rate, elapsed time, power input).

b. Trend Data - Trend analysis comparisons of crewmember performance over time.

c. Text and Video Entertainment (crewmember choice).

10.8.4 Example Microgravity Countermeasures Design Solution

{O}

The following are example design solutions to the microgravity exercise requirements.

a. Strength Exercises - Several devices that utilize an electromagnetic brake or hydraulic mechanism to impose resistance equivalent to those of a 1-G environment have been developed. With a cable/pulley system and proper positioning, all major muscle groups of the body could be exercised (see Figure 10.8.4-1). The exercises include leg extensions, military press, bench press, sit-ups and back extensions, plus leg curls, and arm curls; these exercises constitute a workout for the major muscle groups of the body and should maintain the strength of the arm extensors and leg flexors (which the programs during Skylab 4 failed to do) as well as the arm flexors and leg extensors which were adequately maintained during Skylab 4. The abdominals and back extensors are included because of their importance as antigravity muscle groups for maintaining an erect posture in a 1-G environment. These are not adequately stressed by the natural body position assumed during microgravity exposure.

b. Aerobic Exercise Equipment - A bicycle ergometer similar to that used in the Skylab series (Reference 343) will provide aerobic exercise. It could be modified to include a video display terminal and computer programs (both commercially available) to simulate bicycle touring in Earth environments (e.g., through Yellowstone Park, coast-to-coast, hilly terrain, etc.). Data storage, allowing each crewmember to keep performance and status records, should be included. These modifications, while not essential to the physiological performance, will greatly enhance the motivation to exercise and adherence to prescribed regimens.

c. Skeletal Loading Exercises - A treadmill similar to that used on Skylab 4 and the Shuttle could be provided as an adjunct to the other exercise equipment. Its principal attribute is as an impact device to potentially counter mineral loss in the long bones of the leg. Some crewmembers may prefer it over the bicycle ergometer for aerobic exercise. One is fully described in Reference 343.

Figure 10.8.4-1 Example Muscular Strength exercises 

Sketches of man doing Muscular Strength exercises

Reference: 241, all; 351; NASA-STD-3000 255

Figure 10.8.4-1 Example Muscular Strength exercises (Concluded)

Sketches of man doing Muscular Strength exercises (continued)

Reference: 241, all; 351; NASA-STD-3000 255

10.9 SPACE MEDICAL FACILITY

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10.9.1 Introduction

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This section deals with the design of a Space Medical Facility (SMF). An SMF is any area that is set aside primarily for medical treatment of crew members. The requirement for an SMF assumes that the mission duration will be long term ( in excess of 2 weeks) and that medical treatment outside the module is not immediately available. The information in this section applies to any gravitational environment, although some areas emphasize microgravity conditions and will so state. This section addresses both the environmental and physical requirements of the SMF.

(Refer to Paragraph 7.3, Medical Care, for information on the functional requirements and goals of an SMF.)

(Refer to Reference 363 for definitions of medical terms used in this section.)

10.9.2 Space Medical Facility Design Considerations

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10.9.2.1 Factors That Determine Health Care Needs Design Considerations

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Prior to the design of the Space Medical Facility (SMF) the following information must be determined:

a. Duration of the Mission.

b. Crew Statistics - The health status, age, and number of crewmembers.

c. Mission Activities - The nature of the activities required during the missions.

d. Medical Support - The availability of medical support outside the module.

This information, together with historical data on the nature and frequency of illness and injuries, will determine the size of the SMF and the specific types of equipment required. Once these decisions are made, the detail design process can begin.

10.9.2.2 Functions of the SMF Design Considerations

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The SMF must provide the equipment and supplies to perform the following functions:

a. Prevention.

b. Diagnosis.

c. Therapy.

Some of the equipment and supply items support two or all three of these functions. The relationship of the medical functions and the equipment/supplies is shown in Figure 10.9.2.2-1.

Figure 10.9.2.2-1  Function and Equipment Related to the Space Facility

Three-circle diagram showing how Function and Equipment Relate to the Space Facility

Textual version:

Prevention:  Microgravity countermeasures, physiological monitoring, computer and communications equipment, pharmacy, and central supply.

Diagnosis:  Laboratory, diagnostic imaging equipment, Physician's instruments, Physiological monitoring equipment, computer and communications equipment, and central supply.

Therapy: Hyperbaric treatment equipment, Fluid therapy equipment, Medical life support equipment, surgical equipment, dental equipment, facility for deceased, pharmacy, computer and communications equipment, and central supply.

Reference: 229, p. 11; NASA-STD-3000 184

10.9.2.3 Crewmember Skills Design Considerations

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The equipment in the SMF must be operable by the crewmembers. The final selection and design of the SMF equipment must be consistent with the medical training of the crew.

10.9.3 Space Medical Facility Design Requirements

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A SMF is a dedicated space module area that shall be set aside primarily for medical treatment of crewmembers on long term missions. Some or all of the following capabilities will be required in any given program, and specific elements will be determined by mission duration, crew size and flight characteristics.

10.9.3.1 Medical Communications/Computing Design Requirements

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The SMF shall meet the following environmental requirements:

a. Cleanliness - shall be capable of being cleaned and sanitized.

b. Lighting - shall meet requirements of Figure 8.13.3.1.2-1 for specific medical tasks.

c. Privacy - shall be visually separable from the remainder of the space module.

d. Noise - noise levels shall meet the requirements defined in paragraph 5.4.3.

10.9.3.2 Equipment Requirements

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The SMF equipment shall be capable of the medical functions of diagnosis and monitoring, therapy, and prevention. Listed below are the equipment requirements.

10.9.3.2.1 Data Base and Communications Capability

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A system shall be provided which can:

a. Manage and store medical information and crew health records.

b. Inventory of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals.

c. Two way voice and visual communications between the module and supplemental medical support facilities outside the module.

10.9.3.2.2 Environmental Monitoring Equipment

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The SMF shall have the ability for real-time or near real-time monitoring for:

a. Particulate substances .

b. Microbial contamination of air, water, and surfaces.

c. Volatile contaminants of the atmosphere.

d. Potential water supply contaminants (Paragraph 7.2.2.3.2)

e. Module and biological radiation exposure.

10.9.3.2.3 Physiological Monitoring Equipment

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The SMF shall have the following physiological monitoring capabilities:

a. Cardiovascular.

b. Pulmonary.

c. Metabolic.

d. Renal.

e. Muscular and skeletal.

f. Body Fluids.

10.9.3.2.4 Advanced Life Support

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The SMF shall be capable of medical life support until definitive medical treatment can be administered or until stable or dead. Mechanical ventilator/respiratory support and pulmonary assessment equipment shall be included with the medical life support equipment.

10.9.3.2.5 Laboratory

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The SMF laboratory shall be capable of monitoring and analyzing the following areas:

a. Hematology.

b. Clinical Chemistry.

c. Urine Analysis.

d. Microbiology.

10.9.3.2.6 Diagnostic Imaging

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The SMF shall provide both a radiographic and nonradiographic imaging capability.

10.9.3.2.7 Countermeasures

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The SMF shall provide the equipment necessary to counteract the effects of reduced gravity on the body. The countermeasures shall include:

a. Exercise equipment.

b. Physiologic monitoring equipment.

c. Pharmaceuticals.

d. Pressure devices to counteract the effect of fluid shifts in zero gravity.

(Further details on the microgravity countermeasure facilities are in Paragraph 10.8)

10.9.3.2.8 Surgery/Anesthesia Equipment

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The SMF shall provide supplies and equipment to perform minor surgery.

10.9.3.2.9 Dental Care Equipment

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The SMF shall contain equipment and supplies used to treat dental anomalies of a complexity up to and including tooth removal.

10.9.3.2.10 Intravenous Fluid Injection Supplies and Equipment

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The SMF shall provide equipment for preparation and measured injection of:

a. Sterile water.

b. Fluids containing medications, electrolytes, or nutritional substances.

c. Blood or blood products

10.9.3.2.11 Hyperbaric Treatment Facilities

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The SMF shall have an air lock designed for compression therapy at up to 6 Atmospheres for treatment of decompression sickness and air embolism.

10.9.3.2.12 Pharmaceuticals

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The SMF shall have sufficient pharmaceuticals and facilities for their stowage.

10.9.3.2.13 Central Supply

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Miscellaneous medical equipment such as bandages, burn treatments, intravenous fluids, etc. shall be provided at a readily accessible central point.

10.9.3.2.14 Physician's Instruments

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The SMF shall contain a transportable package of physician's instruments sufficient for the conduct of a routine diagnostic exam.

10.9.3.2.15 Safe Haven Medical Design Requirements

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An area to which the crew can retreat and await rescue in the event of an emergency (safe haven) may be required for the space module. If a safe haven is required, the following are medical requirements that apply to the safe haven.

10.9.3.2.15.1 Nominal Operation Design Requirements

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The safe haven shall have the following minimum operational capabilities for medical support while awaiting rescue:

a. Pharmacy.

b. Central supply.

c. Diagnostic exam.

d. Emergency airway equipment.

e. Mechanically powered intravenous production.

f. Administration capability.

g. Single deployable nonpowered exercise device (to be used only if primary exercise devices are not operational).

10.9.3.2.15.2 Contingency Operation Design Requirements

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In the event the module containing the health care system is evacuated, and if time permits, transportable components of the health care system shall be capable of being relocated to the safe haven.

10.9.3.2.16 Facilities For Processing and Storage of a Deceased Crew Member

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The facilities shall be humane and hygienically acceptable and shall be large enough to accommodate at least one crew member in an EVA suit.

10.10 LAUNDRY FACILITY

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10.10.1 Introduction

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This section discusses a facility to launder clothing, personal equipment (such as bedding), and rags, towels and washcloths for reuse. The section covers IVA clothing and equipment only.

(Refer to Paragraph 11.13.1, Clothing, for a discussion of clothing.)

10.10.2 Laundry Facility Design Considerations

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The following are design consideration for space module laundry facilities:

a. Crew Productivity - Laundry processing is a potentially significant use of crew time and every effort should be made to reduce level of crew involvement. The following are means of reducing crew time:

1. Elimination of the need for pressing laundry.

2. Elimination of the need to sort laundry prior to washing due to different processing requirements.

3. Automation of the collection, processing, and distribution functions.

4. Use of disposable clothing.

5. Location of collection points in areas where the crew will normally change clothing.

b. Laundry Collection, Processing, and Distribution System - There are a number of different options for laundry collection, processing, and distribution. Each of these options require different human factors considerations. Some of the options and their human factors implications are listed below:

1. Central collection, processing, and distribution laundry area - This might save overall module volume but could result in loss of crew time to making daily trips to the laundry area.

2. Several small collection points and central processing and distribution area - This would increase module volume devoted to the laundry function but may improve crew efficiency. An automated transfer of dirty laundry (through conveyor or piping system) would further increase crew efficiency.

3. Several small collection, processing, and distribution areas - Would save crew time in collection and distribution but may require more volume and more crew time in actual laundry processing.

c. System Capacity - Clothing types and laundering frequency rates are estimated in Figure 10.10.2-1. These rates and the size of the crew can be used to estimate the required capacity of the laundry system. Additional laundry capacity will be required for towels, washcloths, bedding, etc. Laundering of these items will depend on the design of the personal hygiene facility, use of disposable materials, housekeeping techniques, etc. Once the system is sized, procedures will have to be established to ensure the laundering frequency does not exceed the system capacity.

d. Noise - Laundry facilities are a potential source of high noise levels. They must be isolated or insulated as required to ensure that the noise requirements in Paragraph 5.4 are met.

10.10.3 Laundry Facility Design Requirements

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The laundry facility shall meet the following design requirements:

a. Cleaning Solvents and Soaps - The laundry cleaning solvents and soaps shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Facilities and processes shall ensure that cleaning solvents and soaps shall not endanger or irritate the crew in any manner.

2. Cleaning solvents and soaps shall be compatible with space module waste processing and recycling systems.

Figure 10.10.2-1 Estimated Laundering Frequency for Clothing Items

Item Estimated mass grams (oz) Estimated laundering frequency

Shirt

110 (4)

1 per 2 days

Jacket

370 (13)

1 per 14 days

Trousers

370 (13)

1 per 7 days

Shorts or panties

57 (2)

1 per day

T-shirt or brassiere

40 (1.5)

1 per day

Socks

14 (.5)

1 per day

Handkerchief

7 (.25)

1 per 2 days

Sleep/gym shorts

85 (3)

2 per 7 days

Sleep/exercise shirt

110 (4)

2 per 7 days

Slipper socks

85 (3)

1 per 90 days

Reference: 107, pp. 6-3 & 4; 139, p. B-17; NASA-STD-3000-219 

3. If water is used as a solvent, it shall meet the quality requirements of personal hygiene water as shown in Figure 7.2.5.3.6-1.

b. Methods shall be provided to extract cleaning solvents from the laundered items.

c. Disinfection - The capability for disinfection of laundry shall be provided.

d. Receptacles - Receptacles for items to be washed shall be well ventilated to minimize the accumulation of odor and growth of microorganisms.

e. Distribution of Laundered Items - Laundry collection and distribution systems shall provide a system to properly track, sort, and distribute laundered items.

f. Human Interface - The facility shall be designed to be operated by the full size and strength range of the space module crew.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.1.3, Body Size Data and Paragraph 4.9.3, Strength Design Requirements.)

g. Contamination - The laundry facility shall incorporate features to prevent contamination of the module atmosphere from by-products such as soaps, water, lint, etc.

h. Restraints - Appropriate restraints shall be provided for use in microgravity conditions.

(Refer to Paragraph 8.9.3, Mobility Aids and Restraints Design Requirements, and Paragraph 11.7.3, Equipment Restraints, for specific restraint requirements.)

10.11 TRASH MANAGEMENT FACILITY

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10.11.1 Introduction

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This section discusses the design of the space module trash management facility and equipment. In this document includes both biologically active and inactive materials. It does not include metabolic/body wastes. Body waste management is discussed in Paragraph 10.3, Body Waste Management Facilities.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.2, Housekeeping, for related information.)

10.11.2 Trash Management Facility Design Considerations

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The following are considerations for the design of the space module trash management facilities.

a. Quantity and Nature of Trash - The amount and nature of the trash will depend on the nature of the mission and the design of the space module. All wrappings, etc., should be minimized and disposables chosen for maximum efficiency and minimum residual. Some of the variables are listed below:

1. Number of crewmembers.

2. Disposable versus reusable items (clothing, utensils, etc.).

3. Mission duration.

4. Type of work performed (experimentation, processing, manufacturing, etc.).

b. Separation - The system may require separation of biologically active and inert trash in order to facilitate stowage and disposal. The crew may have to participate in this function.

c. Location of Trash Receptacles - The selection of trash receptacle types and locations must consider crew productivity. Several small throughout the module may initially save crew time but will cost time if the crew must gather the trash from the receptacles and transport it to a central receptacle.

d. Productivity - Trash management is not a productive crew function. Every effort should be made to automate trash management, reduce volume by compaction, and reduce manual manipulation.

e. Human Interface - The following considerations should be made when designing the trash collection devices and receptacles:

1. All equipment should be operable by the full range of crewmember size and strength.

2. Appropriate restraints should be available in microgravity conditions.

3. All trash handling supplies (wipes, bags, wrapping tape, labels, etc.) should be located so that they are easily accessible.

4. Noise generation equipment (e.g., compactors) should be insulated or isolated from noise sensitive areas.

10.11.3 Trash Management Facility Design Requirements

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The following are the design requirements for trash management from the source to the disposal area:

a. Trash Sorting - Where it is necessary to sort trash before depositing in a receptacle, the following requirements shall be met:

1. Receptacle labeling - Each of the receptacles shall be appropriately labeled defining acceptable and non-acceptable trash.

2. Transfer package labeling - If trash must be transferred from one receptacle to another, there shall be a method of identifying the trash so that it is placed in the proper receptacle.

3. Human error - The system shall be capable of recovery in the event that trash is inappropriately placed in a receptacle.

b. Trash Receptacles:

1. Identification of receptacles - All trash receptacles shall be clearly identifiable.

2. Receptacle location - The location of trash receptacles shall meet the following requirements:

a) The location shall effectively reduce trash in the crew stations.

b) The location shall minimize crew trash handling time.

c) The location shall not interfere with crew movement.

c. Odor and Contamination Control - The following requirements apply to control of odor and contamination:

1. Trash handling equipment shall be designed to preclude module contamination during introduction of trash.

2. Trash storage areas shall preclude contamination of the living environment by harmful microorganisms or odor.

3. The trash management equipment area shall be capable of being cleaned and sanitized.

4. There shall be a safe means for disposal of any harmful chemical or radioactive wastes.

d. Operation - All trash collection, handling, and disposal equipment shall be capable of being operated by the full size and strength range of the defined crewmember population.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size, and Paragraph 4.9.3, Strength Design Requirements, for additional requirements.)

e. Receptacle Capacity - Crewmembers shall be capable of easily determining the level of trash (in relationship to capacity) in each of the trash receptacles.

10.12 STOWAGE FACILITY

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10.12.1 Introduction

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This section covers the overall layout and location of dedicated stowage facilities inside the space module. A storage facility can be integrated with a crew station or may be a separate area apart from the normally occupied areas.

Discussion of stowage hardware can be found in the following paragraphs of section 11: skip paragraph references

Paragraph 11.3, Drawers and Racks

Paragraph 11.4, Closures

Paragraph 11.5, Mounting Hardware

Paragraph 11.6, Handles and Grasp Areas

Paragraph 11.9, Fasteners

Paragraph 11.12, Packaging end of paragraph references

10.12.2 Stowage Facility Design Considerations

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The following are considerations for the design of a stowage facility.

a. Facility Type and Location - Items should be stored in an area as close as possible to where they are used. The following is a list of crew stations and the type of equipment that should be stored adjacent to these stations:

1. Individual crew quarters - Clothing, personal equipment and belongings, personal hygiene supplies (see Paragraph 10.4).

2. Workstation - Writing equipment, film, camera equipment, recording equipment, emergency equipment (extinguisher, first aid equipment, etc.).

3. Personal hygiene facilities - Tissues, wipes, towels, soaps (see Paragraph 10.2).

4. Galley and wardroom - Food, recipes, utensils, wipes, tissues (see Paragraph 10.5).

5. Recreation facilities - Games, reading materials, audio-visual equipment (see Paragraph 10.7).

6. Meeting facility - Writing materials, presentation aids (see Paragraph 10.6).

7. Space medical facility - Medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, dispensary supplies (see Paragraph 10.9).

8. Microgravity countermeasure facility - Exercise and countermeasure equipment (see Paragraph 10.8).

9. Body waste management facility - Wipes, specimen containers (see Paragraph 10.3).

10. Trash Management - (See Paragraph 10.11).

b. Environment - The environment of the storage area must not only be compatible with the stored items, but should be habitable by a crewmember that must unstow, restow, stock, and maintain the facility.

c. Flexibility - The stowage facility must change as the module mission and size changes. Features of the stowage facility that will accommodate change are listed below:

1. Standardized container and container cover size and design.

2. Adjustable shelving and racks.

3. Bolted or strapped storage racks and containers.

4. Inventory management system that can be easily updated. (See Paragraph 13.3).

5. Provisions for stowage facility installation throughout the space module.

d. Security - Some stowage areas such as sensitive experimentation will require security measures. The designer should consider the incorporation of locks and security systems.

e. Central Storage Versus Distributed Storage - Ideally items would be stored adjacent to their use point. There are cases however where this is impractical. A central storage point for some items makes inventory tracking a simpler task. This might include low use items or items which are used in many different stations. In many cases a central storage and distributed storage system can be combined. This might occur in the galley where food for a single meal is stored in a pantry but the entire food supply is stored in a central facility.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.3, Inventory Control, for additional information.)

f. Facility Entrance and Exit - The entrance and exit to the stowage facility should be designed for the crewmember carrying the stowed items. The following considerations should be made:

1 . Size - The size of the door or hatch opening should allow passage of the crewmember plus the stored items. This includes quantities required to restock the facility.

2. Controls and Retaining Devices - Environmental controls such as light switches and storage clamps and straps should be operable by a crewmember carrying the stowed items.

10.12.3 Stowage Facility Design Requirements

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The following are design requirements for space module stowage facilities:

a. Location - The following are requirements for the location of stowage areas:

1. Proximity - Items shall be stored as close as possible to their point of use.

2. Safety - Hazardous items shall be stored away from heat or ignition sources and away from crew congregation areas.

3. Interference - Stowage facilities shall not interfere with normal or emergency crew operations.

b. Accessibility :

1. Stored items shall be accessible by the defined size range of the space module crew.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size, for additional information.)

2. Removal of a stored item shall not require removal of another, unrelated item.

c. Labeling and Coding - Stowage locations and items shall be coded to allow for location, replacement, or inventory of items. The coding system shall allow modification.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.5.3, Labeling and Coding Design Requirements, for additional requirements.)

d. Environment:

(Refer to Section 5.0, Natural and Induced Environments, and Paragraph 8.13.3, Lighting Design Requirements, for habitability and lighting requirements of stowage areas that require human occupation.)

e. Hand Operation - Stowage retainers shall be designed to be operated by hand; no tools shall be required.

f. Commonality - Latching devices, containers, and container covers shall have design commonalty throughout all space module stowage facilities.

g. Inventory Management - The stowage facility shall be compatible with the space module inventory management system.

(Refer to Paragraph 13.3.3, Inventory Control Design Requirements, for additional information.)

h. Retention Devices - Stowage items shall be secured within the container such that the item remains in the container/enclosure when the container is opened. Removal of retention devices shall not release other items which are not required.

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