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MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS
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MAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION STANDARDS Print this page Click to print the page

Volume I, Section 3

3 ANTHROPOMETRY AND BIOMECHANICS

{A} For a description of the notations, see Acceleration Regimes.

This section contains the following topics:Skip Section listing

3.1 Introduction
3.2 General Anthropometrics & Biomechanics Related Design Considerations
3.3 Anthropometric and Biomechanics Related Design Data

See the video clips associated with this section.

3.1 INTRODUCTION

{A}

3.1.1 Scope

{A}

This section presents information about human body size, posture, movement, surface area, volume, and mass.

(Refer to Paragraph 4.9, Strength, for information in human strength).

For purposes of this document, body dimensions and mobility descriptions are limited to the range of personnel considered most likely to be space module crewmembers and visiting personnel. It is assumed that these personnel will be in good health, fully adult in physical development, and an average age of 40 years. A wide range of ethnic and racial backgrounds may b represented, and crewmembers may be either male or female. The dimensional data in Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size, are estimates of the size of crewmembers in the year 2000.

Data included in this document have been primarily measured on the ground (1-G environment). Where possible, guidelines are provided for relating these data to space flight acceleration regimes (from hypergravity to microgravity).

The scope of this section is focused and limited to basic descriptive data, rather than workspace design requirements.

(Refer to Section 8.0, Architecture, Section 9.0, Workstations, and Section 10.0, Activity Centers for specific crew station design considerations and requirements).

3.1.2 Terminology

{A}

The disciplines of anthropometry and biomechanics have a specialized vocabulary of terms with specific meanings for designating points and distances of measurement, range, direction of motion, and mass. General anthropometric terminology is defined in Appendix B of Volume 2. Anatomical and anthropometric planes and landmarks are illustrated in skip figuresFigures 3.1.2-1, 3.1.2-2, 3.1.2-3, and 3.1.2-4 Body segments and the planes defining these segments are defined in Figure 3.1.2-5.

Figure 3.1.2-1 Body Planes and Orientations

Sketch of a woman with planes drawn to demonstrate terminology

Reference: 16, pp. III-78; NASA-STD-3000 260 (Rev A)

 

Figure 3.1.2-2 Anatomical and Anthropometric Landmarks

Sketch of a transparent woman (frontal view) labeling the structural parts

Reference: 16, pp. III-79; NASA-STD-3000 261 (Rev A)

 

Figure 3.1.2-3 Anatomical and Anthropometric Landmarks

Sketch of a transparent woman (side view) labeling the structural parts

Reference: 16, pp. III-79; NASA-STD-3000 262 (Rev A)

 

Figure 3.1.2-4 Anthropometric Landmarks of the Head and Face

Sketches of a transparent head (frontal & side view) labeling the structural parts

Reference: 16, p. III-81; NASA-STD-3000 263

Figure 3.1.2-5 Illustrative view of Body Segments and Planes of Segmentation

Sketch of a skeleton labeling the structural segments and planes

Plane Definitions

Head plane: A simple plane that passes through the right and left gonion points and nuchal.

Neck plane: A compound plane in which a horizontal plane originates at cervical and passes anteriorly to intersect with the second plane. The second plane originates at the lower of the two clavicle landmarks and passes superiorly at a45 degree angle to intersect the horizontal plane.

Thorax plane: A simple transverse plane that originates at the 10th rib midspine landmark and passes horizontally through the torso.

Abdominal plane: A simple transverse plane originating at the higher of the two illica crest landmarks and continuing horizontally through the torso.

Hip plane: A simple plane originating midsagittaly on the perineal surface and passing superiorly and laterally midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and trochanterion landmarks, paralleling the right and left inguinal ligaments.

Thigh flap plane: A simple plane originating at the gluteal furrow landmark and passing horizontally through the thigh.

Knee plane: A simple plane originating at the lateral femoral epicondyle and passing horizontally through the knee.

Ankle plane: A simple plane originating at the sphyrion landmark and passing horizontally through the ankle.

Shoulder plane: A simple plane originating at the acromion landmark and passing inferiorly and medially through the anterior and posterior scye point marks at the axillary level.

Elbow plane: A simple plane originating at the olecranon landmark and passing through the medial and lateral humeral epicondyle landmarks.

Wrist plane: A simple plane originating at the ulnar and radial styloid landmarks and passing through the wrist perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm.

Reference: 273, p.  9-15; NASA-STD-3000 264end of figures

3.2 GENERAL ANTHROPOMETRICS & BIOMECHANICS RELATED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

{A}

3.2.1 Anthropometric Database Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations that must be made when using and applying anthropometric data.

a. Percentile Range - Design and sizing of space modules should ensure accommodation, compatibility, operability, and maintainability by the user population. Generally, design limits are based on a range of the user population from the 5th percentile values for critical body dimensions, as appropriate. The use of this range will theoretically provide coverage for 90% of the user population for that dimension.

b. User Population Definition - Anthropometric data should be established form a survey of the actual user population. In the case of space programs, it is difficult to define the user population. Past space programs have involved a small, select, and easily defined group. As the space program expands, the user population will expand and change. With improved environmental controls, physical fitness will be a less important criterion. Skills and knowledge will be more of a factor in selection. International participation will also influence the character of the user population. In this document, the user population has not been defined. Data are provided for the 5th percentile Asian Japanese and the 95th percentile White or Black American male projected to the year 2000. This does not necessarily define the 5th and 95th percentile of the user population. The data in this document are meant only to provide information on the size ranges of people of the world. The Japanese female represents some of smaller people of the world and the American male some of the larger.  Development of a predicted user population size range requires a statistical combination of an estimated mix of these data.

c. Misuse of the 50th Percentile - There is an erroneous tendency to consider the 50th percentile dimensional data as sufficient to accommodate the majority of users. This must not be done. The 50th percentile dimensions will accommodate only a narrow portion of the population, not a majority of the users. The full size range of users must be considered.

d. Summation of Segment Dimensions - Caution must be taken when combining body segment dimensions. The 95th percentile arm length, for instance, is not the addition of the 95th percentile shoulder-to-elbow length plus the 95th percentile elbow-to-hand length. The actual 95th percentile arm length will be somewhat less. The 95th percentile individual is not composed of 95th percentile segments. The same is true for any percentile individual.

(Refer to Reference 16, p. VIII-5, for a more complete discussion of segment combinations).

e. Percentiles within a category of data are exclusive. For example, a person who is 5th percentile body size does not necessarily have 5th percentile reach or joint movement.

3.2.2 Application of Anthropometric Data Design Considerations

{A}

Equipment, whether it be a workstation or clothing, must fit the user population. The user population will vary in size, and the equipment design must account for this range of sizes. There are three ways in which a design will fit the user:

a. Single Size For All - A single size may accommodate all members of the population. A workstation which has a switch located within the reach limit of the smallest person, for instance, will allow everyone to reach the switch.

b. Adjustment - The design can incorporate an adjustment capability. The most common example of this is the automobile seat.

c. Several Sizes - Several sizes of equipment may be required to accommodate the full population size-range. This is usually necessary for equipment or personal gear that must closely conform to the body such as clothing and space suits

All three situations require the designer to use anthropometric data.

3.2.3 Variability In Human Body Size Design Considerations

{A}

3.2.3.1 Microgravity Effects Design Considerations

{O}

The effects of weightlessness on human body size are summarized below and are discussed in greater detail in Figures 3.2.3.1-1 and 3.2.3.1-2. The primary anthropometry effects of microgravity are as follows:

Figure 3.2.3.1-1 Anthropometric Changes in Weightlessness

Parameter Anthropometric change
  Short-term mission (1 to 14 days) Long-term mission (more than 14 days)
Pre vs. during mission Pre vs. post-mission

Height

Slight increase during first week (~1.3 cm or 0.5 in).

Height returns to normal *R+O

Increases caused by spine lengthening

Increases during first 2 weeks then stabilizes at approximately 3% of pre-mission baseline. Increases caused by spine lengthening

Returns to normal on R+O

Circumferences

Circumference changes in chest, waist, and limbs. See Figure 3.2.3.1-2 for chest and waist changes. Changes due primarily to fluids shifts.

Mass

Post flight weight losses average 3.4%; about 2/3 of the loss is due to water loss, the remainder due to loss of lean body mass and fat. Center of mass shifts headward approximately 3-4 cm (1-2in.) See paragraph 3.3.7.3.2.1 for details.

Inflight weight losses average 3-4% during first 5 days, thereafter, weight gradually declines for the remainder of the mission. Early inflight losses are probably due to loss of fluids; later losses are metabolic. Center of mass shifts headward approximately 3-4 cm (1-2in).

Rapid weight gain during first 5 days postflight, mainly due to replenishment of fluids. Slower weight gain from R+5 to R+2 or 3 weeks.

Limb volume

Inflght leg volume decreases exponentially during first mission day; thereafter, rate of decrease declines until reaching a plateau within 3-5 days. Postflight decrements in leg volume up to 3%; rapid increase immediately postflight, followed by slower return to pre-mission baseline.

Early inflight period same as short missions. Leg volume may continue to decrease slightly throughout mission. Arm volume decreases slightly.

Rapid increase in leg volume immediately postflight, followed by slower return to pre-mission baseline.

Posture

Immediate assumption of neutral body posture (see paragraph 3.3.4)

Immediate assumption of neutral body posture (see paragraph 3.3.4)

Rapid return to pre-mission posture.

Note: *Recovery day plus post mission days

Reference: 16, Chapter 1; 208, pp. 132-133; NASA-STD-3000 265

a. Height Increase - Stature increases approximately 3%. This is the result of spinal decompression and lengthening.

b. Neutral Body Posture - The relaxed body immediately assumes a characteristic neutral body posture.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.4, Neutral Body Posture, for detailed information).

c. Body Circumference Changes - Body circumference changes occur in microgravity such as shown in Figure 3.2.3.1-2. These changes are due to fluid shifts toward the head.

d. Mass Loss - The total mass of the body decreases by 3% to 4%. This is due primarily to loss of body fluids and, somewhat, to atrophy and loss of the mass of muscles that were used in 1-G (muscle mass loss is dependent on exercise regimes).

Figure 3.2.3.1-2 Micro-gravity Changes in Height, Waist, and Chest Measured on Skylab Crewmen: One-G Measurements as Baseline

Plotted lines demonstrating Micro-gravity Changes in Height, Waist, and Chest Measured on Skylab Crewmen: One-G Measurements as Baseline

Reference: 16, Figure 19 and 20, pp. 1-28 and 29; NASA-STD-3000 266

3.2.3.2 Inter-Individual Variation Design Considerations

{A}

The two major factors of inter-individual variations are sex and race. The following general rules apply to the anthropometric variations due to sex and race:

a. Sex Variations - Female measurements average about 92% of comparable male measurements (within race). Average female weight is about 75% of male weight.

b. Racial Variations - Blacks and Whites are very similar in terms of height and weight measurements. The average torso measurement of Whites is longer than Blacks and limbs are shorter. Asians are generally shorter and lighter than Whites and Blacks. Most of this stature difference is in leg length. Asian facial dimensions may be larger in proportion to height.

Because of these variations, the extremes of the world population size range is represented in this document by the large (95th percentile) White or Black American male and the small (5th percentile) Asian Japanese female.

3.2.3.3 Secular Changes Design Considerations

{A}

For typical long-term space module design studies, it is appropriate to estimate the body dimensions of a future population of crew, passengers, and even the ground crew. Past experience has demonstrated that there is a historical change in average height, arm length, weight, and many other dimensions. This type of human variation, occurring from generation to generation over time, is usually referred to as secular change. Whether the effect results from better nutrition, improved health care, or some biological selection process has not been determined.

The validity of the design requirements for the actual operational years of the space module depends on the accuracy of the secular trend estimation, the basic assumptions concerning the baseline crew population, and the operational life of the system.

For this standard, an operational year of 2000 and a crewmember age of 40 years has been selected. The secular growth rates of stature used to predict the year 2000 population are shown in Figure 3.2.3.3-1. These secular growth trends must be validated periodically.

Figure 3.2.3.3-1 Assumed Secular Growth Rate of Stature

STATURE SECULAR GROWTH RATE (per decade)
American male 1.0 cm (0.4 in)
Japanese female 2.6 cm (1.0 in)

References: 16, pp. III-85; 308, Table 2; NASA-STD-3000 267

3.3 ANTHROPOMETRIC AND BIOMECHANICS RELATED DESIGN DATA

{A}

3.3.1 Body Size

{A}

3.3.1.1 Introduction

{A}

This section provides specific body distances, dimensions, contours, and techniques for use in developing design requirements. There is no attempt to include all potentially useful anthropometric data in this document because much of these data are already available in convenient published form such as Reference 16. Rather, one description set of the size range for the projected crewmember population is presented

The dimensions apply to nude or lightly clothed persons.

(Refer to Paragraph 14.3, EVA Anthropometry, for dimensions for crewmembers wearing space suits).

3.3.1.2 Body Size Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations that should be made in applying the body size data:

a. Effects of Clothing - In a controlled IVA environment there is little need for heavy, thick clothing. For most practical purposes, therefore, there is no need to consider the effect of IVA clothing on body size. When an individual must wear an EVA pressure garment or a space suit, body dimensions will be affected drastically. In this case, dimensional studies must be made for the user population wearing the garment. These data must then be substituted for unclothed or lightly clothed dimensions.

b. Microgravity - the dimensions in Paragraph 3.3.1.3 apply to 1-G conditions only. Notations are made on appropriate dimensions that provide guidelines for estimating microgravity dimensions.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.3.1, Microgravity Effects Design Considerations, for more detailed discussion of microgravity effects).

3.3.1.3 Body Size Data Design Requirements

{A}

Dimensions of the year 2000, 40 year-old White or Black American male and the 40 year-old Asian Japanese female are given in Figure 3.3.1.3-1. The data in this figure shall be used as appropriate to achieve effective integrations of the crew and space systems. The dimensions apply to 1-G conditions only.

Dimensional data estimates for the year 2000 White or Black American female crewmember cannot be specified at this time due to insufficient data.

(Refer to Reference 16, Chapter III, Appendix B, for dimensional data for the 1985 American female).

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (1 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman (back, side, and front-sitting view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

1

805

Stature

148.9 (58.6)

157.0 (61.8)

165.1 (65.0)

1

973

Wrist height

70.8 (27.9)

76.6 (30.2)

82.4 (32.4)

64

Ankle height

5.2 (2.0)

6.1 (2.4)

7.0 (2.8)

1

309

Elbow height

92.8 (38.5)

98.4 (38.8)

104.1 (41.0)

169

Bust depth

17.4 (6.8)

20.5 (8.1)

23.6 (9.3)

1

916

Vertical trunk circumference

136.9 (53.9)

146.0 (57.5)

155.2 (61.1)

2 1

612

Midshoulder height, sitting

459

Hip breadth, sitting

30.4 (12.0)

33.7 (13.3)

37.0 (14.6)

1

921

Waist back

35.2 (13.9)

38.1 (15.0)

41.0 (16.1)

506

Interscye

32.4 (12.8)

35.7 (14.1)

39.0 (15.4)

639

Neck circumference

34.5 (13.6)

37.1 (14.5)

39.7 (15.6)

754

Shoulder length

11.3 (4.4)

13.1 (5.1)

14.8 (5.8)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274 p. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (2 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man (back, side, and front-sitting view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

1

805

Stature

169.7 (66.8)

179.9 (70.8)

190 1 (74.8)

1

973

Wrist height

64

Ankle height

12.0 (4.7)

13.9 (5.5)

15.8 (6.2)

1

309

Elbow height

236

Bust depth

21.8 (8.6)

25.0 (9.8)

28.2 (11.1)

1

916

Vertical trunk circumference

158.7 (62.5)

170.7 (67.2)

182.6 (71.9)

2 1

612

Midshoulder height, sitting

60.8 (23.9)

65.4 (25.7)

70.0 (27.5)

459

Hip breadth, sitting

34.6 (13.6)

38.4 (15.1)

42.3 (16.6)

1

921

Waist back

43.7 (17.2)

47.6 (18.8)

51.6 (20.3)

506

Interscye

32.9 (13.0)

39.2 (15.4)

45.4 (17.9)

639

Neck circumference

35.5 (14.0)

38.7 (15.2)

41.9 (16.5)

754

Shoulder length

14.8 (5.8)

16.9 (6.7)

19.0 (7.5)

378

Forearm-forearm breadth

48.8 (19.2)

55.1 (21.7)

61.5 (24.2)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274 p. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (3 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman's body (side-sitting view) and a woman's hand (palm forward) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

2 1

758

Sitting height

78.3 (30.8)

84.8 (33.4)

91.2 (35.9)

2 1

330

Eye height, sitting

68.1 (26.8)

73.8 (29.1)

79.5 (31.4)

4

529

Knee height, sitting

41.6 (16.4)

45.6 (17.9)

49.5 (19.5)

678

Popliteal height

34.7 (13.6)

38.3 (15.1)

41.9 (16.5)

751

Shoulder-elbow length

27.2 (10.7)

29.8 (11.7)

32.4 (12.8)

194

Buttock-knee length

48.9 (19.2)

53.3 (21.0)

57.8 (22.7)

420

Hand length

15.8 (6.2)

17.2 (6.8)

18.7 (7.3)

411

Hand breadth

6.9 (2.7)

7.8 (3.1)

8.6 (3.4)

416

Hand circumference

16.5 (6.5)

17.9 (7.0)

19.3 (7.6)

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

4) Knee height - sitting may increase slightly in microgravity due to relief of the pressure on the heel which it occurs when it measured on the ground. The increase is probably not more than 2 to 3 mm (0.1 inch).

Reference: 274 p. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (4 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man's body (side-sitting view) and a man's hand (palm forward) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

2 1

758

Sitting height

88.9 (35.0)

94.2 (37.1)

99.5 (39.2)

2 1

330

Eye height, sitting

76.8 (30.3)

81.9 (32.2)

86.9 (34.2)

4

529

Knee height, sitting

52.6 (20.7)

56.7 (22.3)

60.9 (24.0)

678

Popliteal height

40.6 (16.0)

44.4 (17.5)

48.1 (19.0)

751

Shoulder-elbow length

33.7 (13.3)

36.6 (14.4)

39.4 (15.5)

194

Buttock-knee length

56.8 (22.4)

61.3 (24.1)

65.8 (25.9)

420

Hand length

17.9 (7.0)

19.3 (7.6)

20.6 (8.1)

411

Hand breadth

8.2 (3.2)

8.9 (3.5)

9.6 (3.8)

416

Hand circumference

20.3 (8.0)

21.8 (8.6)

23.4 (9.2)

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

4) Knee height - sitting may increase slightly in microgravity due to relief of the pressure on the heel which it occurs when it measured on the ground. The increase is probably not more than 2 to 3 mm (0.1 inch).

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (5 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman (front, side, and side-sitting view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

949

Waist height

90.1 (35.5)

96.7 (38.1)

103.4 (40.7)

249

Crotch height

65.2 (25.7)

70.6 (27.8)

76.1 (30.0)

215

Calf height

25.5 (10.0)

28.9 (11.4)

32.3 (12.7)

103

Biacromial breadth

32.4 (12.8)

35.7 (14.1)

39.0 (15.4)

1

946

Waist front

735

Scye circumference

32.3 (12.7)

36.1 (14.2)

39.8 (15.7)

178

Buttock circumference

79.9 (31.5)

87.1 (34.3)

94.3 (37.1)

1 2

312

Elbow rest height

20.7 (8.2)

25.0 (9.9)

29.3 (11.5)

856

Thigh clearance

11.2 (4.4)

12.9 (5.1)

14.5 (5.7)

381

Forearm hand length

37.3 (14.7)

41.7 (16.4)

44.6 (17.6)

200

Buttock-popliteal length

37.9 (14.9)

41.7 (16.4)

45.5 (17.9)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268eT

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 ( 6 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man (front, side, and side-sitting view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

949

Waist height

100.4 (39.5))

108.3 (42.6)

116.2 (45.7)

249

Crotch height

79.4 (31.3)

86.4 (34.0)

93.3 (36.7)

215

Calf height

32.5 (12.8)

36.2 (14.3)

40.0 (15.7)

103

Biacromial breadth

37.9 (14.9)

41.1 (16.2)

44.3 (17.5)

1

946

Waist front

37.2 (14.6)

40.9 (16.1)

44.5 (17.5)

735

Scye circumference

44.4 (17.5)

49.0 (19.3)

53.6 (21.1)

178

Buttock circumference

91.0 (35.8)

100.2 (39.4)

109.4 (43.1)

1 2

312

Elbow rest height

21.1 (8.3)

25.4 (10.0)

29.7 (11.7)

856

Thigh clearance

14.5 (5.7)

16.8 (6.6)

19.1 (7.5)

381

Forearm hand length

200

Buttock popliteal length

46.9 (18.5)

51.2 (20.2)

55.5 (21.9)

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height- sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

2) Sitting height would be better named as buttock-vertex in microgravity conditions, unless the crewmember were measured with a firm pressure on shoulders pressing him or her against a fixed, flat "sitting" support surface. All sitting dimensions (vertex, eye, shoulder, and elbow) increase in weightlessness by two changes:

a) Relief of pressure on the buttock surfaces (estimated increase of 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 inches).

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above (3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268eT

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (7 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman's body (front view) and a woman's head (front view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

3, 1

23

Acromial (shoulder) height

119.6 (47.1) 127.1 (50.0) 134.5 (53.0)

894

Trochanteric height

71.0 (28.0) 76.7 (30.2) 82.4 (32.5)

873

Tibiale height

35.9 (14.1) 39.3 (15.5) 42.7 (16.8)

122

Bideltoid (shoulder) breadth

35.6 (14.0) 38.9 (15.3) 42.1 (16.6)

223

Chest breadth

24.5 (9.7) 26.8 (10.5) 29.0 (11.4)

457

Hip breadth

30.5 (12.0) 32.9 (12.9) 35.3 (13.9)

165

Bizgomatic (face) breadth

13.3 (5.2) 14.5 (5.7) 15.7 (6.2)

427

Head breadth

14.4 (5.7) 15.6 (6.1) 16.8 (6.6)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height-sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

3) Shoulder or acromial, height, sitting or standing, increases during weightlessness due to two factors:

a) Removal of the gravitational pull on the arms

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note (1) above 3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274; pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268pT

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (8 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man's body (front view) and a man's head (front view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

3 1

23

Acromial (shoulder) height

138.0 (54.3)

147.6 (58.1)

157.3 (61.9)

894

Trochanteric height

88.3 (34.8)

95.8 (37.8)

102.9 (40.5)

873

Tibiale height

122

Bideltoid (shoulder) breadth

44.6 (17.6)

48.9 (19.3)

53.2 (20.9)

223

Chest breadth

29.7 (11.7)

33.2 (13.1)

36.7 (14.4)

457

Hip breadth

32.7 (12.9)

35.8 (14.1)

39.0 (15.4)

165

Bizgomatic (face) breadth

13.4 (5.3)

14.3 (5.6)

15.1 (6.0)

427

Head breadth

14.8 (5.8)

15.7 (6.2)

16.5 (6.5)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

1) Stature increases approximately 3% over the first 3 to 4 days in weightlessness (see figure 3.2.3.1-2). Almost all of this change appear in the spinal column, and thus affects (increases) other related dimensions, such as sitting height (buttock-vertex), shoulder height-sitting, eye height, sitting, and all dimensions that include the spine.

3) Shoulder or acromial, height, sitting or standing, increases during weightlessness due to two factors:

a) Removal of the gravitational pull on the arms

b) Extension of the spinal column as explained in note ( 1) above 3% of stature on ground).

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268hT

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (9 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman's body (front view) and a woman's arm (side view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

747

Shoulder circumference

230

Chest circumference

73.2 (28.8)

82.1 (32.3)

90.9 (35.8)

6

931

Waist circumference

55.3 (21.8)

63.2 (24.9)

71.2 (28.0)

5

852

Thigh circumference

45.6 (17.9)

51.6 (20.3)

57.7 (22.7)

5

515

Knee circumference

31.0 (12.2)

34.6 (13.6)

38.2 (15.0)

5

207

Calf circumference

30.3 (11.9)

34.1 (13.4)

37.8 (14.9)

113

Biceps circumference, relaxed

21.8 (8.6)

25.5 (10.1)

29.3 (11.5)

967

Wrist circumference

13.7 (5.4)

15.0 (5.9)

16.2 (6.4)

111

Biceps circumference, flexed

369

Forearm circumference, relaxed

19.9 (7.8)

22.0 (8.7)

24.1 (9.5)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

5) Leg circumferences and diameters significantly decrease during the first day in microgravity. See Reference 16, Appendix C, for details and measurements of actual persons.

6) Waist circumference will decrease in microgravity due to fluid shifts to the upper torso. See figure 3.2.3.1-2 for measurements on actual persons.

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268iT, 268q

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (10 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man's body (front view) and a man's arm (side view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

747

Shoulder circumference

109.5 (43.1)

119.2 (46.9)

128.8 (50.7)

230

Chest circumference

89.4 (35.2)

100.0 (39.4)

110.6 (43.6)

6

931

Waist circumference

77.1 (30.3)

89.5 (35.2)

101.9 (40.1)

5

852

Thigh circumference

52.5 (20.7)

60.0 (23.6)

67.4 (26.5)

5

515

Knee circumference

35.9 (14.1)

39.4 (15.5)

42.9 (16.9)

5

207

Calf circumference

33.9 (13.3)

37.6 (14.8)

41.4 (16.3)

113

Biceps circumference, relaxed

27.3 (10.7)

31.2 (12.3)

35.1 (13.8)

967

Wrist circumference

16.2 (6.4)

17.7 (7.0)

19.3 (7.6)

111

Biceps circumference, flexed

29.4 (11.6)

33.2 (13.1)

36.9 (14.5)

369

Forearm circumference, relaxed

27.4 (10.8)

30.1 (11.8)

32.7 (12.9)

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Notes for application of dimensions to microgravity conditions:

5) Leg circumferences and diameters significantly decrease during the first day in microgravity. See Reference 16, Appendix C, for details and measurements of actual persons.

6) Waist circumference will decrease in microgravity due to fluid shifts to the upper torso. See figure 3.2.3.1-2 for measurements on actual persons.

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 368

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (11 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Female

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old Japanese Female for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a woman's bent arm, woman's foot (top view), woman's outstretched arm (side view), and a woman's head (side view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

67

Thumb-tip reach

65.2 (25.7)

71.6 (28.2)

78.0 (30.7)

772

Sleeve length

441

Head length

16.7 (6.6)

18.2 (7.2)

19.6 (7.7)

430

Head circumference

53.2 (20.9)

55.2 (21.7)

57.2 (22.5)

586

Menton-sellion (face) length

9.0 (3.5)

10.8 (4.2)

12.6 (5.0)

362

Foot length

21.3 (8.4)

22.9 (9.0)

24.4 (9.6)

356

Foot breadth

8.6 (3.4)

9.3 (3.7)

10.0 (3.9)

97

Ball of foot circumference

21.0 (8.3)

22.7 (8.9)

24.3 (9.6)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268k

Figure 3.3.1.3-1 (12 of 12) Anthropometric Dimensional Data for American Male

Body Size of the 40-Year-Old American Male for Year 2000 in One Gravity Conditions
Sketches of a man's bent arm, man's foot (top view), man's outstretched arm (side view), and a man's head (side view) labeling the measurements
Microgravity notes No. Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

67

Thumb-tip reach

74.9 (29.5)

81.6 (32.1)

88.2 (34.7)

772

Sleeve length

86.2 (33.9)

92.0 (36.2)

97.9 (38.5)

441

Head length

18.8 (7.4)

20.0 (7.9)

21.1 (8.3)

430

Head circumference

55.5 (21.8)

57.8 (22.8)

60.2 (23.7)

586

Menton-sellion (face) length

11.1 (4.4)

12.1 (4.8)

13.1 (5.2)

362

Foot length

25.4 (10.0)

27.3 (10.8)

29.3 (11.5)

356

Foot breadth

9.0 (3.6)

9.9 (3.9)

10.7 (4.2)

97

Ball of foot circumference

23.1 (9.1)

25.1 (9.9)

27.2 (10.7)

Values in cm with inches in parentheses

Notes:

a) Gravity conditions - the dimensions apply to a 1-G condition only. Dimension expected to change significantly due to microgravity are marked.

b) Measurement data - the numbers adjacent to each of the dimension are reference codes. the same codes are in Volume II of Reference 16. Reference 16, Volume II, provides additional data for these measurements plus an explanation of the measurement technique.

Reference: 274, pp. 121-128; 308; 351; NASA-STD-3000 268L

3.3.2 Joint Motion

{A}

This section provides information for developing design requirements related to biomechanics, particularly skeletal joint angular motion capabilities and limitations. Joint motion data can be used to determine possible positions for the various parts of body.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.3, Reach, for functional reach data).

3.3.2.1 Introduction

{A}

3.3.2.2 Joint Motion Design Considerations

{A}

3.3.2.2.1 Application of Data Design Considerations

{A}

Joint motion capability varies throughout the population. The values given are for the 5th and 95th percentile of the range. The data should be applied in the following manner:

a. 5th Percentile - Use the 5th percentile limit when personnel must position their body to operate or maintain equipment.

b. 95th Percentile - Use the 95th percentile limit when designing to accommodate a full range of unrestricted movement.

Unless the equipment in the workspace is sex-specific (i.e., used by only males or by only females), then the designer should consider the upper and lower limits for the combined male and female population. In general, the female population has a slightly broader range of joint movement.

3.3.2.2.2 Multi-Joint Versus Single Joint Data Design Consideration

{A}

More often than not, human motion involves interaction of two or more joints and muscles. The movement range of a single joint is often drastically reduced by the movement of an adjacent joint. In other words, joint movement ranges are not always additive. For example, an engineering layout may show (using a scaled manikin) that a foot control is reachable with a hip flexion of 50 degrees and the knee extended (0 degrees flexion). Both of these ranges are within the individual joint ranges as shown in Figure 3.3.2.3.1-1. However, Figure 3.3.2.3.2-1 shows the hip flexion is reduced by over 30 degrees when the knee is extended. The control would, therefore, not be reachable.

3.3.2.2.3 Gravity Environment Design Considerations

{A}

The joint motion studies were performed in a 1-G environment. There are no data for the microgravity environment. Indications are that joint motion capability will not be drastically affected in microgravity. Given this, the data in this section can be applied to a microgravity environment.

3.3.2.3 Joint Motion Data Design Requirements

{A}

3.3.2.3.1 Joint Motion Data For Single Joint Design Requirements

{A}

Figure 3.3.2.3.1-1 shows single joint movement ranges for both males and females. These data apply to both 1-G and microgravity environments. These data shall be used as appropriate to ensure the design accommodates the required body movements for the crewmembers.

Figure 3.3.2.3.1-1 Joint Movement Ranges for Males and Females

Figure Joint movement
(note b)
Range of motion (degrees)
Males (note a) Female (note a)
5th percentile 95th percentile 5th percentile 95th percentile

1

Neck, rotation

Neck, rotation right (A)

73.3

99.6

74.9

108.8

Neck, rotation left (B) 74.3 99.1 72.2 109.0

2
Neck, flexion and extension

Neck, flexion (B)

34.5

71.0

46.0

84.4

Neck, extension (A) 65.4 103.0 4.9 103.0

3

Neck bend

Neck, lateral bend right (A)

34.9

63.5

37.0

63.2

Neck, lateral bend left (B) 35.5 63.5 29.1 77.2

4

shoulder abduction and adduction

Shoulder, abduction

173.2

188.7

172.6

192.9

5

Shoulder, rotation

Shoulder, rotation lateral (A)

46.3

96.7

53.8

85.8

Shoulder, rotation medial (B) 90.5 126.6 95.8 130.9

6

Shoulder, flexion and extension

Shoulder, flexion (A)

164.4

210.9

152.0

217.0

Shoulder, extension (B) 39.6 83.3 33.7 87.9

7

Elbow, flexion

Elbow, flexion (A)

140.5

159.0

144.9

165.9

8

Forearm, pronation and supination

Forearm, pronation (B)

78.2

116.1

82.3

118.9

Forearm, supination (A) 83.4 125.8 90.4 139.5

9

Wrist, radial bend and ulnar bend

Wrist, radial bend (B)

16.9

36.7

16.1

36.1

Wrist, ulnar bend (A) 18.6 47.9 21.5 43.0

10
Wrist, flexion and extension

Wrist, flexion (A)

61.5

94.8

68.3

98.1

Wrist, extension (B) 40.1 78.0 42.3 74.7

11
Hip, flexion

Hip, flexion

116.5

148.0

118.5

145.0

12

Hip, abduction and adduction

Hip, abduction (B)

26.8

53.5

27.2

55.9

13

Knee, flexion

Knee, flexion

118.4

145.6

125.2

145.2

14

Ankle, plantar extension and dorsi flexion

Ankle, plantar extension (A)

36.1

79.6

44.2

91.1

Ankle, dorsi flexion (B) 8.1 19.9 6.9 17.4

Notes:

a. Data was taken 1979 and 1980 at NASA-JSC by Dr. William Thornton and John Jackson. The study was made using 192 males (mean age 33) 22 females (mean age 30) astronaut candidates (see Reference 365).

b. Limb range is average of right and left limb movement.

Reference: 365, Figure 3, pp. 711-713; NASA-STD-3000 340A

3.3.2.3.2 Joint Motion Data For Two Joint Design Requirements

{A}

Data to determine the range of movement for two joints are given in Figure 3.3.2.3.2-1. Figure 3.3.2.3.2-1 defines the changes in range of motion of a given joint when supplemented by the movement of an adjacent joint. These data apply to both 1-G and microgravity environments. These data shall be used as appropriate to ensure the design accommodates the required body movements of the crewmembers.

Figure 3.3.2.3.2-1 Change in Range of Movement With Movement in Adjacent Joint

Two-joint movement Full range of A (degrees) Change in range of movement of A (degrees)

Movement of B (fraction of full range)

Zero

1/3

1/2

2/3

Full

Shoulder extension (A)
with elbow flexion (B)

59.3 deg

+1.6 deg

(102.7%)

 

+0.9 deg

(101.5%)

+5.3 deg

(108.9%)

Shoulder flexion (A)
with elbow flexion (B)

190.7 deg

-24.9 deg

(86.9%)

 

-36.1 deg

(81.0%)

-47.4 deg

(75.0%)

Elbow flexion (A)
with shoulder extension (A)

152.2 deg

 

-3.78 deg

(97.5%)

 

-1.22 deg

(99.2%)

Elbow flexion (A)
with shoulder flexion (B)

152.2 deg

-0.6 deg

(99.6%)

 

-0.8 deg

(99.5%)

-69.0 deg

(54.7%)

Hip flexion (A)
with shoulder flexion (B)

53.3 deg

-35.6 deg *

(33.2%)

-24.0 deg

(55.0%)

 

-6.2 deg

(88.4%)

-12.3 deg

(76.9%)

Ankle plantar flexion (A)
with knee flexion (B)

48.0 deg

-3.4 deg

(92.9%)

 

+0.2 deg

(100.4%)

+1.6 deg

(103.3%)

Ankle dorsiflexion (A)
with knee flexion (B)

26.1 deg

-7.3 deg

(72.0%)

 

-2.7 deg

(89.7%)

-3.2 deg

(87.7%)

Knee flexion (A)
with ankle plantar flexion (B)

127.0 deg

-9.9 deg

(92.2%)

 

-4.7 deg

(96.3%)

Knee flexion (A)
with ankle dorsiflexion (B)

127.0 deg

 

 

 

-8.7 deg

(93.0%)

Knee flexion (A)
with hip flexion (B)

127.0 deg

 

-19.6 deg

(84.6%)

 

-33.6 deg

(73.5%)

Notes:

* The knee joint is locked and the unsupported leg extends out in front of the subject.

The following is an example of how the Figure is to be used. The first entry is as follows: the shoulder can be extended as far as 59.3 degrees ( the mean of the subjects tested) with the elbow in a neutral position (locked in hyperextension). When shoulder extension was measured with the elbow flexed to 1/3 of its full joint range, the mean value of shoulder extension was found to increase by 1.6 degrees, or 102.7% of the base value. The results for other movements and adjacent joint positions are presented in a similar manner.

Reference: 16, pp. VI-12 to VI-15; NASA-STD-3000 289

3.3.3 Reach

{A}

3.3.3.1 Introduction

{A}

The following section discusses human body reach limits in terms of functional reach and in terms of body strike envelope. Body strike envelope defines the volume that the extremities (legs, head, arms) of a seated and restrained crewmember will strike when subjected to high accelerations such as during launch and entry

The information in this section is limited to IVA conditions where the crewmember is wearing nonrestrictive clothing

(Refer to Paragraph 14.3, EVA Anthropometry, for EVA functional reach envelopes).

3.3.3.2 Reach Design Considerations

{A}

3.3.3.2.1 Gravity Condition Design Considerations

{A}

All definitive studies of both static anthropometry and functional reach have been made on the Earth's surface under conditions of standard gravity. However, microgravity and multigravity environments will affect both static anthropometry and functional reach measurements in the following manner:

a. Microgravity Effects - The spine will lengthen under microgravity conditions. This will increase the overhead reach limits. Downward reaches are more difficult; there is no gravity assist. Similarly, upward reaches will seem easier.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.3.1, Microgravity Effects Design Considerations, for details of spinal changes in microgravity).

b. Multi-G Effects - While microgravity may be the constant environment for some space modules, another module, such as the Space Shuttle, may experience accelerations up to 3-G during launch and up to 1.5-G during a typical entry. Any controls or workspace items that must be reached and operated during these times cannot be positioned on the basis of the greater reach capabilities in microgravity or 1-G. The reach movement restrictions in a multi-G environment are shown in Figure 3.3.3.2.1-1. The designer must keep in mind that any system basically being designed for micro-g use, if it is to be utilized in one-g or multi-g environments, must take into account the reduced reach capability which the user will experience under these conditions.

c. Short Duration, Multi-G Effects - Abrupt high accelerations can cause the extremities of even a securely restrained crewmember flail. In this case, the designer must consider the nonfunctional and potentially injurious aspects of the reach envelope.

Figure 3.3.3.2.1-1 Reach Movements Possible in a Multi-G Environment

Acceleration Possible Reach Motion

Up to 4-G

Arm

Up to 5-G (9-G if arm is counter balanced) Forearm
Up to 8-G Hand
Up to 10-G Finger

Reference: 19, Section 2D6, p. 1; NASA-STD-3000 290

3.3.3.2.2 Body Posture Design Considerations

{A}

In multi-, 1-, or partial gravity environments, standing or seated postures are commonly used for workspace operation. In the seated posture, the reach envelope can be severely restricted if the crewmember is wearing a fixed shoulder harness that does not reel out. Body postures which must be maintained for extended periods of time in 1- or multi-g environments may result in accelerated fatigue problems; e.g., bending over for long periods.

The normal working posture of the body in a microgravity environment differs substantially from that in a 1-G environment. The seated posture is, for all practical purposes, eliminated because the sitting posture is not a natural one under these conditions. The neutral body posture is the basic posture that should be used in establishing a microgravity workspace layout.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.4, Neutral Body Posture, for a definition of neutral body posture).

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.4, Human/Workstation Configuration, for information on accommodating the neutral body posture in the workstation).

3.3.3.2.3 Restraint Design Considerations

{O}

While the absence of gravitational forces will usually facilitate rather than restrict body movement, this lack of gravity will leave crewmembers without any stabilization when they exert a thrust or push. Thus, some sort of body restraint system is necessary. Three basic types of body restraint or stabilizing devices have been tested either under neutral buoyancy conditions on Earth and/or actual microgravity conditions in space. These are handhold, waist, and foot restraints. The following is a description of each type of restraint and its effect on reach:

(Refer to Paragraph 11.7.2, Personnel Restraints, for neutral body posture restraints design information).

a. Handhold Restraint - With the handhold restraint, the individual is stabilized by holding onto a handgrip with one hand and performing the reach or task with the other. This restraint affords a fairly wide range of functional reaches, but body control is difficult and body stability is poor.

b. Waist Restraint - A waist restraint (for example, a clamp or belt around the waist) affords good body control and stabilization, but seriously limits the range of motion and reach distances attainable.

c. Foot Restraint - The third basic system restrains the individual by the feet. In Skylab observations and neutral buoyancy test, the foot restraints were judged to be excellent in reach performance, stability, and control. The foot restraint provides a large reach envelope to the front, back, and to the sides of the crewmember. Appreciable forces can often not be exerted due to weak muscles of the ankle rotators. Foot restraints should be augmented with waist or other types of restraints where appropriate.

3.3.3.2.4 Task Type Design Considerations

{A}

The length of a functional arm reach is clearly dependent on the kind of task or operation to be performed by that reach. For example, tasks requiring only fingertip pressure on a pushbutton could be located at or near the outer limits of arm reach as defined by the fingertip. This would be, essentially, absolute maximum functional reach attainable. However, another task may require rotation of a control knob between thumb and forefinger; this would result in a reduction of the above maximum attainable functional reach. Full hand grasp of a control lever would reduce maximum reach even more. Where two-handed operation, greater precision, or continuous operation are required, the task must be located still closer to the operator.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.3, Controls, for further information on types of hand controls).

3.3.3.2.5 Clothing Design Considerations

{A}

Clothing and personal equipment worn on the body can influence functional reach measurements. The effect is most commonly a decrease in reach. This decrease can sometimes be considered if clothing or equipment are especially bulky or cumbersome. Most data on functional reaches have been gathered under so-called light indoor clothing), which do not appreciably affect the measurements.

If space suits are required during any phase of the space module operations, this will necessitate a substantial reduction in any design reach dimensions established for shirtsleeve operations. The extent of these differences would have to be determined from using the specific space suits and gear to be employed in that mission. The information in this section applies only to light, nonrestrictive clothing.

(Refer to Paragraph 14.3, EVA Anthropometry for information on EVA functional reach dimensions).

3.3.3.2.6 Crewmember Size Design Considerations

{A}

Crew stations should accommodate the reach limits of the smallest crewmember. Reach limits are not always defined by overall size, however. For instance, the worst case condition for a constrained (e.g., seated with shoulder harness tight) is a combination of a long shoulder height and a short arm. These statistical variations in proportions are natural and should be accounted for in reach limit definitions. The reach limits in Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 account for these variations.

3.3.3.3 Reach Data Design Requirements

{A}

3.3.3.3.1 Functional Reach Design Requirements

{A}

Equipment and controls required to perform a task shall be within the reach limit of the crewmember performing the task. The reach limit envelope cannot be considered a working reach envelope. Reach is effected by fatigue and force exerted and there is a marked variation in strength which can be exerted throughout this envelope. Tasks which require strength and dexterity should be located well within the perimeter of the reach limit envelope. This is especially true of repetitious tasks. For strength limitations, see Section 4.9. The following are functional reach limits for persons wearing non-restrictive clothing:

a. Torso Restrained Reach Boundaries - Equipment and controls operated by crewmembers restrained at the torso, shall be within the functional reach boundaries given in Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1. These boundaries shall be adjusted as appropriate to the task conditions:

1. Backrest Angle - The boundaries in Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 apply when the operator's shoulders are against a flat backrest inclined 13 degrees from vertical. Adjustments shall be made for different backrest angles using the approximations in Figure 3.3.3.3.1-2.

2. Task Type - The functional reach boundaries apply to tasks requiring thumb and forefinger grasp only. Adjustment for other grasp requirements shall be made in accordance with Figure 3.3.3.3.1-5.

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (1 of 19)

Sketch of man demonstrating Grasp Reach Limits on horizontal plane With Right hand

Notes:

a. Gravity conditions - the boundaries apply to 1-G conditions only. Microgravity will cause the spine to lengthen, and adjustments should be made based on a new shoulder pivot location.

b. Subjects - the subjects used in this study are representative of the 1967 Air Force population estimated defined in Reference 16, Chapter III.

Reference: 310 , pp. 35-52; NASA-STD-3000 288a

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (2 of 19)

(2 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288b

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (3 of 19)

(3 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288c

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (4 of 19)

(4 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288d

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (5 of 19)

(5 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288e

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (6 of 19)

(6 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288f

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (7 of 19)

(7 of 19) Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288g

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (8 of 19)

Sketch of man demonstrating Grasp Reach Limits on XZ Plane With Right hand

Notes:

a. Gravity conditions - the boundaries apply to 1-G conditions only. Microgravity will cause the spine to lengthen, and adjustments should be made based on a new shoulder pivot location.

b. Subjects - the subjects used in this study are representative of the 1967 Air Force population estimated defined in Reference 16, Chapter III.

Reference: 310, p. 35 to 52; NASA-STD-3000 288h

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (9 of 19)

(9 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288i

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (10 of 19)

(10 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288j

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (11 of 19)

(11 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288k

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (12 of 19)

(12 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288l

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (13 of 19)

(13 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288m

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (14 of 19)

Sketch of man demonstrating Grasp Reach Limits on YZ plane With Right hand

NASA-STD-3000 288n

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (15 of 19)

(15 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288o

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (16 of 19)

(16 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288p

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (17 of 19)

(17 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288q

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (18 of 19)

(18 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288r

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-1 Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations (19 of 19)

(19 of 19)  Grasp Reach Limits With Right hand for American Male and Female Populations

NASA-STD-3000 288s

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-2 Changes in Arm Reach Boundaries as a Function of Variation in Backrest Angle of 13 Degrees From Vertical

Direction Of Arm Reach (Deg)
(From 0 deg or Straight Ahead, to 90 Deg To the Right)

Approximate changes in reach for each single degree of change in backrest angle
(reach increases as backrest angle moves to vertical, and vice versa)

0

1.02 cm (0.40 in)

15 1.27 cm (0.50 in)
30 1.14 cm (0.45 in)
45 0.94 cm (0.37 in)
60 0.66 cm (0.26 in)
75 0.36 cm (0.14 in)
90 0.25 cm (0.10 in)

Reference: 16, Volume 1, p. V-61; NASA-STD-3000 287

b. Microgravity Handhold Restraint - Equipment and controls operated in microgravity by crewmembers using a handhold restraint, shall be within the functional reach boundaries given in Figure 3.3.3.3.1-3. The functional reach boundaries apply to tasks requiring fingertip operation only. Adjustment for other grasp operations shall be made in accordance with Figure 3.3.3.3.1-5.

c. Microgravity Foot Restraint - Equipment and controls operated in microgravity by crewmembers using a foot restraint, shall be within the functional reach boundaries given in Figures 3.3.3.3.1-4 and 3.3.3.3.1-5. The functional reach boundaries apply to tasks requiring fingertip operation only. Adjustment for grasp operations shall be made in accordance with Figure 3.3.3.3.1-5.

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-3 Microgravity Handhold Restraint Reach Boundaries

A sketch of a man swinging around a hand hold (360 degrees)

  Radius of fingertip reach boundary
95th percentile male 195 cm (77 inches)
5th percentile female 150 cm (63 inches)

Notes:

a. Subjects - These data were generated using a computer-based anthropometric model. The computer model was developed using a sample of 192 male astronaut candidates and 22 female astronaut candidates measured in 1979 and 1980 (Reference 365). The 5th percentile stature of the male population is 167.9 cm (66.1 inches) and the 95th percentile male stature is 189.0 cm (74.4 inches). The 5th percentile stature of the female population is 157.6 cm (62.0 inches) and the 95th percentile female is 175.7 cm (69.2 inches).

b. Gravity conditions - Although the motions apply to a microgravity condition, the effects of spinal lengthening have not been considered.

Reference: 351; NASA-STD-3000 337b

 

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-4 Microgravity Foot Restraint Reach Boundaries - Fore/Aft

Sketches of human tethered to foot restrant and rotating forward and backward

Subject Radius Of Reach Fingertip Boundary In X-Z Plane
Flexible arch support Fixed 'flat' foot restraint foot restraint
95th percentile Male

222 cm (87 in)

212 cm (83 in)

5th percentile Female 188 cm (74 in) 172 cm (68 in)

Notes:

a. Subjects - These data were generated using a computer-based anthropometric model. The computer model was developed using a sample of 192 male astronaut candidates measured in 1979 and 1980 (Reference 365). The 5th percentile stature of the male population is 167.9 cm (68.1 inches) and the 95th percentile male stature is 189.0 cm (74.4 inches). The 5th percentile stature of the female population is 157.6 cm (62.0 in.) and the 95th percentile female is 175.7 cm (69.2 in).

b. Gravity conditions - Although the motions apply to a microgravity condition, the effects of spinal lengthening have not been considered.

c. Restraint configuration - two sets of dimensions are given for the fore/aft reach boundary. One set, the larger dimensions, apply to a fairly snug, but flexible, arch support that allows the toes and heels to raise slightly from the floor. The other set of dimensions apply to a foot restraint that secures the feet flat to the floor.

Reference: 320; NASA-STD-3000 337b

Figure 3.3.3.3.1-5 Microgravity Foot Restraint Reach Boundaries-Side by Side (Using Flexible Arch Support Foot Restraint Configuration)

Sketch of a man rotating left and reaching out and down to demonstrate reach boundaries

Notes:

a. The angle is measured between the x-axis and a line drawn from the center of the foot restraint to the foot restraint to the reach boundary.

b. The full reach boundary (up to 0 degrees angle) will be provided in the next revision of this document.

c. These data were generated using a computer based anthropometric model. The computer model was developed using a sample of 192 male astronaut candidates and 22 female astronaut candidates measured in 1979 and 1980 (Reference 365). The 5th percentile stature of the male population is 167.9 cm (66.1 inches) and the 95th percentile male stature is 189.0 cm (74.4 inches). The 5th percentile stature of the female population is 157.6 cm (62.0 inches) and the 95th percentile female is 175.7 cm (69.2 inches).

d. Although the motions apply to a microgravity condition, the effects of a spinal lengthening have not been considered.

Dimensions of fingertip reach boundary in YZ plane
  Angle (degrees) Y-axis dimension Z-axis dimension
95th percentile male 90 0 222 cm
75 80 cm (31 in) 193 cm (76 in)
60 110 cm (43 in) 160 cm (63 in)
5th percentile male 90 0 188 cm (74 in)
75 28 cm (11 in) 175 com (69 in)
60 80 cm (31 in) 140 cm (55 in)
Reference: 320

 

Microgravity Foot Restraint Reach Boundaries-Side by Side
Type of task Adjustment

Finger tip operation

+7.0 cm (2.8 in)

Full hand grasp -5.5 cm (2.2 in)
Reference: 310

Reference: 310, p. 84; 320; NASA-STD-3000 274

3.3.3.3.2 Strike Reach Envelope Data Design Requirements

{L}

If abrupt high accelerations are expected, items within the strike envelope shall be designed to minimize injury to the crewmember. Body strike envelopes as defined in Figures 3.3.3.3.2-1 and 3.3.3.3.2-2 shall be used as appropriate

Figure 3.3.3.3.2-1 4-G Strike reach envelope of a Seated 95th Percentile Male Wearing Full Restraint (Seat Belt and Dual Shoulder Harness)

Sketch of Seated 95th Percentile Male Strike reach envelope Wearing Full Restraint (shown from top, front, and side)

Notes: These figures show the envelope that the body extremities (arms, legs, head, and torso) could strike when the seated person is subjected to 4-G acceleration either fore and aft or to the side (± Gx or ± Gy). Refer to Paragraph 5.3.1, Introduction, for acceleration vector reference conventions).

Reference: 21, DN3Q4, p. 3; NASA-STD-3000 334

Figure 3.3.3.3.2-2 4-G Strike reach envelope of a Seated 95th Percentile Male - Lap Belt Only

Sketch of Seated 95th Percentile Male Strike reach envelope Wearing Lap Belt Restraint only (shown from top, front, and side)

Notes: These figures show the envelope that the body extremities (arms, legs, head, and torso) could strike when the seated person is subjected to 4-G acceleration either fore and aft or to the side (± Gx or ± Gy). Refer to Paragraph 5.3.1, Introduction, for acceleration vector reference conventions).

Reference: 21, DN3Q4, p. 3; NASA-STD-3000 335

(Refer to Paragraph 6.3.3, Mechanical Hazards Design Requirements, for requirements for protection from mechanical hazards).

3.3.4 Neutral Body Posture

{O}

3.3.4.1 Introduction

{O}

This section describes the posture that the body assumes in microgravity. Implications for habitat and crew station design are given.

3.3.4.2 Neutral Body Posture Design Considerations

{O}

The crewmembers should not be expected to maintain a 1-G posture in a microgravity environment. Having to maintain some 1-G postures in microgravity may produce stress when muscles are called on to supply forces that were normally supplied by gravity. Stooping and bending are examples of positions that cause fatigue in microgravity. In microgravity, the body assumes a neutral body posture. The natural heights and angles of the neutral body posture must be accommodated. Some of the areas to be considered are as follows:

a. Foot Angle - Since the feet are tilted at approximately 111 degrees to a line through the torso, sloping rather than flat shoes or restraint surfaces should be considered.

b. Feet and Leg Placement - foot restraints must be placed under the work surface. The neutral body posture is not vertical because hip/knee flexion displaces the torso backward, away from the footprint. The feet and legs are positioned somewhere between a location directly under the torso (as in standing) and a point well out in front of the torso (as in sitting).

c. Height - The height of the crewmember in microgravity is between sitting and standing height. A microgravity work surface must be higher than one designed for 1-G or partial-gravity sitting tasks.

d. Arm and Shoulder Elevation - Elevation of the shoulder girdle and arm flexion in the neutral body posture also make elevation of the work surface desirable.

e. Head Tilt - In microgravity the head is angled forward and down, a position that depresses the line of sight and requires that displays be lowered.

(Refer to Paragraph 9.2.4, Human/Workstation Configuration for additional information on the design of microgravity workstations.

3.3.4.3 Neutral Body Posture Data Design Requirements

{A}

Space module crew stations shall be configured to accommodate the neutral body posture shown in Figure 3.3.4.3-1.

Figure 3.3.4.3-1 Neutral Body Posture

Sketches of a man in Neutral Body Posture (top, side, and front view)

Note: The segment angles shown are means. Values in parentheses are standard deviations about the mean. The data was developed in Skylab studies and is based on the measurement of 12 subjects.

Reference: 7, p. 24 to 26; 129, Fig. 11; NASA-STD-3000 285

3.3.5 Body Surface Area

{A}

3.3.5.1 Introduction

{A}

This section provides a means of estimating the body skin surface based on body mass and body stature.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.7.3.1.1, Whole Body Mass Design Requirements for whole-body mass data.)

(Refer to Paragraph 3.3.1, Body Size Data Design Requirements, for stature data.)

3.3.5.2 Body Surface Area Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations for using the body surface area estimations:

a. Gravity Environment - Body surface area estimation equations apply to 1-G conditions only. They do not account for the fluid shifts and spinal lengthening in microgravity.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.3.1, Microgravity Effects Design Considerations, for a discussion of corrections for microgravity conditions.)

b. Population - The equations given are most accurate for the White or Black male and female body form. The equations should not be used to estimate the body surface area of the Asian Japanese female. Estimates for the body surface area of the Japanese female will be provided in the next revision of this document.

c. Application of Data - Body surface area data have several space module design applications. These include:

1. Thermal control - Estimation of body heat production for thermal environmental control.

2. Estimation of radiation dosage.

3.3.5.3 Body Surface Area Data Design Requirements

{A}

The body surface area data in Figure 3.3.5.3-1 shall be used as appropriate to achieve effective integration of the crew and space systems. These data apply to 1-G conditions only.

Figure 3.3.5.3-1 Estimated Body Surface Area of the American Male Crewmember

American male crewmember body surface area

5th Percentile

17,600 cm2 (2730 in 2)

50th Percentile 20,190 cm2 (3130 in2)
95th Percentile 22,690 cm2 (3520 in2)

Notes:

a. American male crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

b. Data apply to 1-G conditions.

Reference: 272, p. 1; NASA-STD-3000 284

3.3.6 Body Volume

{A}

3.3.6.1 Introduction

{A}

The following section presents information on the volume displaced by the body as a whole and the body segments.

3.3.6.2 Body Volume Data Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations for using body volume data:

a. Gravity Environment - The data are based on 1-G conditions and does not account for fluid shifts or spinal lengthening due to weightlessness.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.3.1, Microgravity Effects Design Considerations, for a discussion of corrections for microgravity conditions.)

b. Population - The data provided in this paragraph apply only to the White or Black male body form. The data should not be used to estimate the body volume of the Asian Japanese female. Estimates for the body volume of the Japanese female will be provided in the next revision of this document.

3.3.6.3 Body Volume Data Design Requirements

{A}

The data in this section shall be used as appropriate to achieve effective integration of the crew and space module.

Body volume data for the Japanese female crewmember cannot be specified at this time due to insufficient data.

3.3.6.3.1 Whole-Body Volume Data Design Requirements

{A}

The whole-body volume data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are given in Figure 3.3.6.3.1-1.

Figure 3.3.6.3.1-1 Whole Body Volume of American Male Crewmember

American male crewmember body volume

5th Percentile

68,640 cm3 (4190 in 3)

50th Percentile 85,310 cm3 (5210 in3)
95th Percentile 101,840 cm3 (6210 in3)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only.

b. American male crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations

Reference: 276, pp. 80, 81; NASA-STD-3000 283

3.3.6.3.2 Body Segment Volume Data Design Requirements

{A}

Body segment volume data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are given in Figure 3.3.6.3.2-1.

Figure 3.3.6.3.2-1 Body Segments Volume of the American Male Crewmember

Sketch showing basic volume of male body segments
Segment Volume, cm3 (in3)
  5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

1 Head

4260 (260)

440 (270)

4550 (280)

2 Neck

930 (60)

1100 (70)

1270 (80)

3 Thorax

20420 (1250)

26110 (1590)

31760 (1940)

4 Abdomen

2030 (120)

2500 (150)

2960 (180)

5 Pelvis

9420 (570)

12300 (750)

15150 (920)

6 Upper arm *

1600 (100)

2500 (130)

2500 (150)

7 Forearm *

1180 (70)

1450 (90)

1720 (100)

8 Hand

460 (30)

530 (30)

610 (40)

9 Hip flap *

2890 (180)

3640 (220)

4380 (270)

10 Thigh minus flap *

5480 (330)

6700 (410)

7920 (480)

11 Calf *

3320 (200)

4040 (250)

4760 (290)

12 Foot *

840 (50)

1010 (60)

1180 (70)

5 + 4 + 3 Torso

31870 (1940)

40910 (2450)

49870 (3040)

9 + 10 Thigh *

8360 (510)

10340 (630)

12300 (750)

7 + 8 Forearm plus hand *

1640 (100)

1980 (120)

2320 (140)

Notes:

*Average of right and left sides

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 276, pp. 32-79; NASA-STD-3000 282T

3.3.7 Body Mass Properties

{A}

3.3.7.1 Introduction

{A}

This section discusses the mass of the human body and engineering properties of the body mass. The following data are provided:

a. Body Mass - Both whole-body and body-segment mass data are provided.

b. Center of Mass - Center of mass locations are defined for both the whole body in defined positions and for body segments.

c. Body Moment of Inertia - Moment of inertia data are provided for the whole body in defined positions and for body segments.

All data are based 1-G measurements.

3.3.7.2 Body Mass Properties Design Considerations

{A}

The following are considerations for using the body mass properties data:

a. Effects of Microgravity on the Body - Microgravity causes fluids to shift upward in the body and leave the legs. This results in an upward shift of the center of mass for the whole body and a loss of mass in the leg segments.

(Refer to Paragraph 3.2.3.1, Microgravity Effects Design Considerations for information to estimate the impact of microgravity on the body mass data.)

b. Population - The only body mass data provided for the Japanese female is whole body mass. Japanese female crewmember center of mass and moment of inertia data cannot be specified at this time due to insufficient data.

c. Body Weight Versus Body Mass - Although body mass remains constant, body weight will depend on gravity conditions. In 1-G body weight is calculated as indicated below:

1. Weight in lbs/32.2 = Mass in slugs

2. Weight in Newtons = mass in Kg X 9.8.

d. Application of Data - In microgravity, the body mass properties define body reaction to outside forces. These forces can be:

1. Reactive to forces exerted by the crewmember or a hand tool.

2. Active forces from devices such as the Manned Maneuvering Unit.

Both whole-body and body segment mass properties are given. The reaction of the body to a force depends on both the mass and the relative positions of the body segments. The whole-body center of mass and moment of inertia data are provided for 8 predefined positions. whole-body mass properties for other positions would have to be determined by mathematically combining the mass properties of the individual segments.

3.3.7.3 Body Mass Properties Data Design Requirements

{A}

The data in this section shall be used as appropriate to achieve effective integration of the crew and space systems.

3.3.7.3.1 Body Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

3.3.7.3.1.1 Whole-Body Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

Whole-body mass data for the crewmember population in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.1.1-1.

Figure 3.3.7.3.1.1-1 Whole body mass of year 2000 crewmember population (age 40)

Male (American) Female (Japanese)
5th
percentile
50th
percentile
95th
percentile
5th
percentile
50th
percentile
95th
percentile

65.8 kg
(145.1 lb)

82.2 kg
(181.3 lb)

98.5 kg
(217.2 lb)

41.0 kg
(90.4 lb)

51.5 kg
(113.5 lb)

61.7 kg
(136.0 lb)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only. Fluid losses in microgravity reduce these masses.

b. Year-2000 crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 16, 308, pp. III-92, III-85; NASA-STD-3000 281

3.3.7.3.1.2 Body Segment Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

Body segment mass data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.1.2-1.

Figure 3.3.7.3.1.2-1 Mass of Body Segments for the American Male Crewmember

Sketch showing basic mass of male body segments
Segment Mass, gm (oz, weight)
  5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

1 Head

4260 (150)

440 (160)

4550 (160)

2 Neck

930 (30)

1100 (40)

1270 (40)

3 Thorax

20420 (720)

26110 (920)

31760 (1120)

4 Abdomen

2030 (70)

2500 (90)

2960 (100)

5 Pelvis

9420 (330)

12300 (430)

15150 (530)

6 Upper arm *

1600 (60)

2500 (70)

2500 (90)

7 Forearm *

1180 (40)

1450 (50)

1720 (60)

8 Hand

460 (20)

530 (20)

610 (20)

9 Hip flap *

2890 (100)

3640 (130)

4380 (150)

10 Thigh minus flap *

5480 (190)

6700 (240)

7920 (280)

11 Calf *

3320 (120)

4040 (140)

4760 (170)

12 Foot *

840 (30)

1010 (40)

1180 (40)

5 + 4 + 3 Torso

31870 (1120)

40910 (1440)

49870 (1760)

9 + 10 Thigh *

8360 (290)

10340 (360)

12300 (430)

7 + 8 Forearm plus hand *

1640 (60)

1980 (70)

2320 (80)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations Average of Right and Left Sides

Reference: 276, pp. 32-79 With Updates; NASA-STD-3000 280

3.3.7.3.2 Center of Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

3.3.7.3.2.1 Whole-Body Center of Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

The whole body center of mass location data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.2.1-1. Equations for locating the whole body center of mass in males of different sizes, are given in Figure 3.3.7.3.2.1-2.

Figure 3.3.7.3.2.1-1 Whole Body Center of Mass Location of the American Male Crewmember

Sketch of human from side and front

L(Y) - 1/2 distance between anterior superior iliac spine landmarks (1/2 bispinous breadth).

Posture Dimension 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile
1. Standing

Standing

L(X)

8.6 (3.4)

9.1 (3.6)

9.6 (3.8)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6)

12.5 (4.9)

13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

75.7 (29.8)

80.2 (31.6)

84.7 (33.3)

2. Standing with arms over head
Standing with arms over head

L(X)

8.7 (3.4)

9.0 ((3.6)

9.4 (3.7)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6)

12.5 (4.9)

13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

69.9 (27.5)

73.9 (29.1)

77.9 (30.7)

3. Spread Eagle

Spread Eagle

L(X)

8.2 (3.2) 8.6 (3.4) 9.0 (3.6)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

69.4 (27.3) 73.5 (28.9) 77.5 (30.5)
4. Sitting

Sitting

L(X)

19.4 (7.7) 20.6 (8.1) 21.8 (8.6)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

65.2 (25.7) 68.6 (27.0) 71.9 (28.3)
5. Sitting, Forearms Down

Sitting, Forearms Down

L(X)

18.9 (7.4) 20.0 (7.9) 21.1 (8.3)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

66.0 (26.0) 69.3 (27.3) 72.5 (28.6)
6. Sitting, Thighs Elevated
Sitting, Thighs Elevated

L(X)

17.6 (6.9) 18.8 (7.4) 20.1 (7.9)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.8) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

57.3 (22.5) 59.4 (23.4) 61.5 (24.2)
7. Mercury Configuration

Mercury Configuration

L(X)

19.4 (7.6) 20.5 (8.1) 21.5 (8.5)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

66.8 (26.3) 69.9 (27.5) 73.0 (28.7)
8. Relaxed (weightless)
Relaxed (weightless)

L(X)

18.0 (7.1) 18.8 (7.4) 19.6 (7.7)

L(Y)

11.7 (4.6) 12.5 (4.9) 13.3 (5.2)

L(Z)

68.0 (26.8) 70.9 (27.9) 73.7 (29.0)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions. To estimate center of mass location in microgravity, multiply the L(z) figure by 0.9

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations

Reference: 16, Chapter IV, 250; NASA-STD-3000

Figure 3.3.7.3.2.1-2 Whole Body Center of Mass Location for American Male Crewmembers of Different Sizes

Location of center of mass, cm = [ A x (stature, cm) ] + [ B x (weight, lbs) ] + [C]
Posture Dimension A B C SE* (cm) R**
1. Standing

Standing

L (X)

-0.035 0.024 11.008 0.33 0.7636
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.6 09 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.486 -0.014 -4.775 1.33 0.9329
2. Standing (arms over head)
Standing with arms over head

L (X)

-0.040 0.020 12.632 0.45 0.5823
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.416 -0.007 0.305 1.52 0.8927
3. Spread eagle

Spread Eagle

L (X)

-0.031 0.020 10.443 0.36 0.6706
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.392 0.002 2.547 1.48 0.8921
4. Sitting

Sitting

L (X)

0.080 0.010 4.450 0.56 0.7900
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.344 -0.004 7.327 1.46 0.8632
5. Sitting (thighs elevated)

Sitting, Thighs Elevated

L (X)

0.041 0.022 7.405 0.66 0.7104
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.610 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.212 -0.002 21.582 1.24 0.7801
6. Sitting (with arms down)

Sitting, Forearms Down

L (X)

0.075 0.010 4.628 0.51 0.8030
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.355 -0.010 7.389 1.56 0.8489

7. Mercury configuration

Mercury Configuration

L (X)

0.076 0.008 5.253 0.54 0.7828
L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.311 -0.002 14.425 1.80 0.7841
8. Weightless

Relaxed (weightless)

L (X)

0.077

0.001

4.692

0.60

0.6973

L (Y) 0 0.021 8.609 0.89 0.4310
L (Z) 0.218 0.017 28.552 3.16 0.5015

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only. To estimate center of mass location in microgravity, multiply the L(z) figure by 0.9.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 250, 279; NASA-STD-3000

3.3.7.3.2.2 Body Segments Center of Mass Data Design Requirements

{A}

Center of mass of body location data for body segments of the American male crewmember in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.2.2-1

Figure 3.3.7.3.2.2-1 Body Segment of Mass for American Male Crewmember

Sketches of head, torso, and upper arm to demonstrate center of mass locations for males
Center of mass location, cm (in)
5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

9.4

(3.7)

6.8

(2.7)

2.1

(0.8)

10.4

(4.1)

7.2

(2.8)

2.3

(0.9)

11.5

(4.5)

7.7

(3.)

2.5

(1.0)

8.4

(3.3(

13.8

(5.4)

21.0

(8.3)

10.0

(3.9)

15.8

(6.2)

21.8

(8.6)

11.6

(4.6)

17.8

(7.0)

22.6

(8.9(

*

*

14.1

(5.6)

*

*

14.9

(5.9)

*

*

15.7

(6.2)

Notes:

a. These data apply only to 1-G conditions.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 16, Chapter IV; NASA-STD-3000 277a

Figure 3.3.7.3.2.2-1 Body Segment of Mass for American Male Crewmember (Continued)

Sketches of forearm, hand, and thigh to demonstrate center of mass locations for males
Center of mass location, cm (in)
5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

*

*

10.9 (4.3)

*

*

11.5 (4.5)

*

*

12.1 (4.8)

*

*

5.1 (2.0)

*

*

5.6 (2.2)

*

*

6.0 (2.4)

*

*

17.0 (6.7)

*

*

18.0 (7.1)

*

*

19.1 (7.5)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations Assume symmetry.

Reference: 16, Chapter IV; NASA-STD-3000 277b

3.3.7.3.3 Moment of Inertia Data Design Requirements

{A}

3.3.7.3.3.1 Whole-Body Moment of Inertia Data Design Requirements

{A}

Whole-body moments of inertia data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.3.1-1.

Figure 3.3.7.3.3.1-1 Whole Body Moment of Inertia for the American Male Crewmember

Moment of Inertia, g=cm2 x 106 (lb-in-sec2)
Position Axis 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile
1. Standing

Standing

X

106.5 (94.2)

144.5 (101.3)

182.3 (161.2)

Y

94.9 (83.9)

129.2 (114.3)

163.4 (144.5)

Z

10.3 (12.7)

14.4 (12.7)

18.5 (16.4)

2. Standing, Arms over head

Standing, Arms over head

X

141.0 (124.7)

191.9 (169.7)

242.6 (214.6)

Y

124.6 (110.2)

172.9 (152.9)

221.0 (195.5)

Z

10.6 (9.4)

14.1 (12.5)

17.5 (15.5)

3. Spread Eagle

Spread Eagle

X

137.2 (121.3)

190.4 (168.4)

243.4 (215.3)

Y

104.2 (92.2)

144.8 (128.1)

185.2 (163.8)

Z

32.0 (28.3)

46.6 (41.2)

61.3 (54.2)

4. Sitting

Sitting

X

57.3 (50.7)

76.9 (68.0)

96.5 (85.3)

Y

62.0 (54.8)

83.2 (73.6)

104.3 (92.2)

Z

30.7 (27.2)

42.4 (37.3)

54.0 (47.8)

5. Sitting, Forearms Down

Sitting, Forearms down

X

59.2 (52.4) 77.6 (68.6) 96.0 (84.9)

Y

63.9 (56.5) 86.3 (76.3) 108.6 (96.0)

Z

30.9 (27.3) 42.8 (37.9) 54.6 (48.3)
6. Sitting, Thighs Elevated

Sitting, Thighs Elevated

X

37.6 (33.3) 48.7 (43.1) 59.8 (52.9)

Y

37.2 (32.9) 48.6 (41.2) 55.8 (49.3)

Z

23.9 (21.1) 33.7 (29.8) 43.5 (38.5)
7. Mercury Configuration

Mercury Configuration

X

62.5 (55.3) 82.2 (72.7) 101.8 (90.0)

Y

69.6 (61.6) 95.5 (84.5) 121.3 (107.3)

Z

31.9 (28.2) 43.0 (38.0) 54.0 (47.8)
8. Relaxed (weightless)

Relaxed (weightless)

X

88.0 (77.8) 114.5 (101.3) 140.9 (124.6)

Y

84.1 (74.4) 109.6 (96.9) 134.8 (119.2)

Z

39.8 (35.2) 50.5 (44.7) 61.2 (54.1)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G condition only.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 16, IV-42,IV-25; NASA-STD-3000 276b

3.3.7.3.3.2 Body Segments Moment of Inertia Data Design Requirement

{A}

Body segments moments of inertia data for the American male crewmember in 1-G are in Figure 3.3.7.3.3.2-1.

Figure 3.3.7.3.3.2-1 Body Segment Moment of Inertia for the American Male Crewmember

Moment of inertia, g-cm2 x 103, (lb-in-sec2 x 103)
Segment Axis 5th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile

Head

Head

X

195.2 (172.7)

207.1 (183.2)

218.9 (193.6)

Y

221.8 (196.2)

236.8 (209.4)

251.6 (222.6)

Z

144.9 (128.1)

152.2 (135.5)

161.4 (142.7)

Neck

Neck

X

13.4 (11.9)

18.2 (16.1)

23.0 (20.3)

Y

16.6 (14.7)

22.0 (19.5)

27.4 (24.2)

Z

20.3 (17.9)

27.5 (24.3)

34.6 (30.6)

Thorax

Thorax

X

3509.6 (3103.9)

5312.0 (4697.9)

7100.2 (6279.4)

Y

2556.3 (2260.8)

3920.6 (3467.4)

5274.0 (4664.3)

Z

2153.8 (1904.8)

3320.1 (2936.3)

4475.5 (3958.1)

Abdomen

Abdomen

X

116.6 (103.1)

175.2 (155.0)

233.2 (206.2)

Y

63.3 (56.0)

98.2 (86.8)

132.6 (117.3)

Z

173.6 (153.5)

265.4 (234.7)

356.1 (315.0)

Pelvis

Pelvis

X

713.7 (631.2)

1123.4 (993.6)

1528.9 (1352.1)

Y

646.4 (571.7)

1033.5 (914.0)

1416.4 (1252.7)

Z

820.0 (752.2)

1303.6 (1152.9)

1782.0 (1576.0)

Torso

Torso

X

10731.4 (9490.9)

15957.8 (14113.0)

21141.0 (18697.1)

Y

2556.3 (2260.8)

3920.6 (3467.4)

5274.0 (4664.3)

Z

2153.8 (19004.8)

3320.1 (2936.3)

5274.0 (4664.3)

Right upper arm

Right upper arm

X

92.6 (81.9)

141.7 (125.4)

190.5 (168.6)

Y

97.6 (86.3)

151.2 (133.7)

204.4 (180.8)

Z

18.5 (16.3)

29.2 (25.8)

39.8 (35.2)

Left upper arm

Left upper arm

X

89.1 (78.8)

137.2 (121.43)

185.0 (163.6)

Y

93.3 (82.5)

145.7 (128.9)

197.8 (174.9)

Z

17.8 (15.8)

28.2 (24.9)

38.4 (34.0)

Right forearm

Right forearm

X

65.3 (57.7)

93.9 (83.1)

122.4 (108.3)

Y

66.3 (58.6)

95.6 (84.6

124.8 (110.4)

Z

9.6 (8.5)

14.2 (12.6)

18.8 (16.6)

Left forearm

Left forearm

X

63.7 (56.3)

88.9 (78.6)

113.9 (100.7)

Y

66.4 (57.8)

91.5 (80.9)

117.4 (103.9)

Z

8.9 (7.9)

12.9 (11.4)

16.9 (14.9)

Right hand

Right hand

X

10.7 (9.4)

13.8 (12.2)

16.8 (14.9)

Y

8.7 (7.7)

11.2 (9.9)

13.7 12.1)

Z

3.4 (3.0)

4.5 (4.0)

5.5 (4.9)

Left hand

Left hand

X

10.8 (9.5)

13.6 (12.0)

16.4 (14.5)

Y

9.0 (7.9)

11.3 (10.0)

13.6 (12.0)

Z

3.5 (3.1)

4.4 (3.9)

5.3 (4.7)

Right hip flap

Right hip flap

X

88.8 (78.5)

134.1 (118.6)

178.9 (158.2)

Y

116.3 (102.8)

173.1 (153.1)

229.4 (202.9)

Z

150.4 (133.1)

226.5 (200.3)

301.7 (266.9)

Left hip flap

Left hip flap

X

85.0 (75.1)

128.8 (133.9)

172.2 (152.3)

Y

113.4 (100.3)

169.2 (149.7)

224.5 (198.5)

Z

146.7 (129.8)

219.2 (193.8)

290.8 (257.2)

Right thigh minus flap

Right thigh minus flap

X

453.6 (401.2) 653.1 (577.6) 852.3 (753.8)

Y

469.2 (415.0) 673.4 (595.6) 877.3 (775.9)

Z

178.4 (157.8) 255.2 (225.7) 331.3 (293.0)
Left thigh minus flap

Left thigh minus flap

X

437.3 (386.8) 620.9 (549.1) 804.0 (711.1)

Y

460.7 (407.5) 653.4 (577.9) 845.7 (747.9)

Z

172.3 (152.4) 246.9 (218.3) 321.0 (283.8)
Right calf

Right calf

X

430.7 (381.0) 618.1 (546.6) 804.8 (711.8)

Y

437.7 (387.1) 627.1 (554.6) 816.0 (721.7)

Z

51.8 (45.8) 72.0 (63.7) 92.1 (81.5)
Left calf

Left calf

X

434.1 (383.9) 629.6 (556.8) 824.7 (729.4)

Y

441.4 (390.3) 639.7 (565.8) 837.7 (740.9)

Z

50.7 (44.9) 72.8 (64.4) 94.7 (83.7)

Right foot

Right foot

X

6.5 (5.7)

8.7 (7.7)

10.9 (9.6)

Y

33.8 (29.9)

46.1 (40.7)

58.3 (51.5)

Z

36.0 (31.8)

48.8 (43.2)

61.7 (54.5)

Left foot

Left foot

X

6.1 (5.4)

8.3 (7.4)

10.6 (9.3)

Y

32.4 (28.6)

44.7 (39.5)

57.0 (50.4)

Z

34.2 (30.2)

47.0 (41.6)

59.8 (52.9)

Right thigh

Right thigh

X

1163.7 (1029.2)

1689.8 (1494.4)

2213.9 (1958.0)

Y

1225.4 (1083.8)

1780.9 (1575.0)

2334.2 (2064.4)

Z

316.5 (279.9)

464.6 (410.9)

611.3 (540.6)

Left thigh

Left thigh

X

1122.6 (992.6)

1623.0 (1435.4)

2121.1 (1875.9)

Y

1186.3 (1049.2)

1713.2 (1515.1)

2237.5 (1978.8)

Z

306.2 (270.8)

448.5 (396.6)

589.5 (521.3)

Right forearm plus hand

Right forearm plus hand

X

238.5 (210.9)

327.8 (289.9)

416.7 (368.5)

Y

237.5 ((210.0)

326.5 (288.8)

415.1 (367.2)

Z

13.4 (11.9)

19.2 (17.0)

25.0 (22.1)

Left forearm plus hand

Left forearm plus hand

X

234.1 (207.0)

314.1 (277.8)

293.8 (348.3)

Y

232.8 (205.9)

312.2 (276.1)

391.2 (346.0)

Z

12.8 (11.4)

17.9 (15.9)

23.0 (20.3)

Notes:

a. These data apply to 1-G conditions only.

b. The American male crewmember population is defined in Paragraph 3.2.1, Anthropometric Database Design Considerations.

Reference: 276, pp. 32-79; NASA-STD-3000 275e

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